Add the onions generic sildigra 50mg on-line, red pepper sildigra 25mg with mastercard, marjo- ram sildigra 50mg visa, black pepper cheap 100 mg sildigra mastercard, cayenne pepper order 50 mg sildigra otc, and salt and sauté until soft—approxi- mately 3 minutes. Place chicken over vegetable mixture, cover, and bake for about 40 min- utes or until chicken is cooked through. Either as a snack or for lunch with a nice tossed green salad, this is quite a dish! Lightly coat a nonstick cookie sheet with nonfat vegetable cooking spray. Place eggplant and zucchini slices on the sheet, cover with foil, and bake for about 15 minutes or until slices are soft. Heat a skillet over medium heat and coat with nonfat vegetable cooking spray. Place ground turkey, coriander, black pepper, and cayenne pepper in the skillet and sauté until brown—approximately 3 to 4 minutes. Lasagna assembly: Lightly spray an ovenproof baking dish with nonfat vegetable cooking spray. Alternate layers of baked eggplant, ground turkey, marinara sauce, and baked zucchini. TURKEY CHILI The all-time favorite at the Madison Square Club is brought back here by popular demand. Cook for 2 to 3 minutes, breaking up the turkey into pieces, until browned all over. Serving suggestion: Use one tablespoon of *Red Pepper Almond Pesto instead of ketchup to add some zip to your burger. In a medium-sized mixing bowl, combine turkey, scallion, oregano, and thyme. Fill the red pepper with the ground turkey mixture and place into a baking dish. Optional variation: Before baking, place one tablespoon of *Marinara Sauce on top of the ground turkey. MEXICAN TURKEY BURGER WITH JALAPEÑO PEPPERS AND MEXICAN SALSA My favorite ethnic food has got to be Mexican—can never really get enough salsa! The salsa can also be used for your egg dishes and anything else that might need to be a little caliente. In another medium-sized bowl, combine turkey, scallion, jalapeño pepper, garlic, chili powder, cumin, and salt and mix thoroughly. Grill turkey burger for 4 to 5 minutes on each side until cooked through. SALMON CAKE Heart-healthy salmon is adaptable and quite tasty, as you will see in this recipe. In another bowl, combine salmon, parsley, vinegar, Worcestershire sauce, and red pepper ﬂakes. THE ULTIMATE RECIPE COLLECTION 209 TLFeBOOK Heat a medium-sized, nonstick skillet over medium heat and coat with nonfat vegetable cooking spray. Spoon mixture onto the skillet, forming salmon cake about 4 inches wide and 1 inch thick. Cook over medium heat for 3 minutes and then turn over and cook for an additional 2 minutes for medium rare. FENNEL CRUSTED SALMON The distinctive ﬂavor of fennel transforms this dish. In a medium-sized bowl combine the arugula, fennel, pepper strips, basil, and vinegar; toss well. Crush the fennel seed and the peppercorns using a mortar and pestle or a spice grinder. Season the top of the salmon ﬁllet with the salt and sprinkle the fennel-pepper mix over the ﬁllet. Heat a large nonstick, ovenproof, sauté pan over medium heat and coat with nonfat vegetable cooking spray. Place the salmon ﬁllet spice side down into the skillet and sear until the fillet edges have begun to crisp slightly, about 3 minutes. Arrange arugula, fennel bulb, red pepper, and basil onto plate and top with salmon. Add Dijon mustard, salmon, egg white, soy sauce, and sesame seeds and stir until mixed well. Form into burger and grill 2 to 3 minutes per side (or until desired doneness).
One of the hardest parts of writing minutes is defining how they can be seen as successful purchase sildigra 50mg on line, or not buy sildigra 120mg with amex. One of the certainties cheap sildigra 120 mg with mastercard, however discount 50mg sildigra amex, is that at the next meeting someone will complain about the accuracy (not that they are inaccurate; the complaint is usually made for completely different reasons) buy sildigra 100mg on line. This should be taken as part of the game, and not an indication of failure. A better indicator is whether the chair (or whoever is holding the meeting) is happy with them. In some organizations, particularly those with a full-time secretariat, writers of minutes may find themselves torn between the chair and their head of department. Later it was adapted to describe those sent overseas to spread a religious message. When you carry out a group activity, it is a good idea to sit down beforehand and work out what you are trying to do. A well-written mission statement (call it something else, if you wish) should clarify, not confuse. It should also improve the likelihood of everyone working together for the same end. Monologophobia A term first coined by Harold Evans, distinguished editor of the London Sunday Times. It is the fear of using the same word more than once within several lines of itself. Some people, doubtless conditioned by a torrid time at school (see post-spelling bee traumatic disorder), feel that part of the challenge of writing is to find alternative words; otherwise others will think poorly of them. Often the repetition of a word is a strong sign that the sentence could be improved. As you come towards the end of the rewriting phase, you may wish to keep an eye out for undue repe- tition; if you give your writing to someone else to read, they will almost certainly point out to you if repetition is getting in the way. If they say you are repeating words (and it is annoying them), then do something about it. Instead give the message – a simple sentence outlining the implication of what you have found (see final sentences). Multi-authored books These abound (see books, editing of; books, writing chapters in). Negatives Prefer to say what is rather than what is not (see positives). Negotiating changes When we ask friends or colleagues to give us feedback on what we have written, we do not have to nego- tiate, because we do not have to follow their suggestions. When we submit our writing to co-authors and bosses, however, the situation is different. It is therefore not always possible to dismiss their proposed changes out of hand, even if we have reason to believe that these changes will ruin any chance our writing might have of putting our message across to the target audience (see false feedback loop; proofreading). This is therefore a key part of the writing process, and should be approached with care. It will help enormously if you have already agreed with these people the overall message and the market (see brief setting). My colleague Pete Moore has suggested a kind of triage, which divides comments from co-authors and bosses into three groups. Incorporate the proposed changes, and thank your co-author graciously for the helpful contribution. As before, thank them profusely for their contribution – graciously, if you can. These are the changes on which you must concentrate your diplomatic skills. Co-authors and bosses should not be commenting on minor matters, so as a long-term goal you should consider training them. If you are getting proposed changes from more than two people, you will find that some of the proposals are in direct conflict. I would suggest two general principles: (1) try to negotiate away any suggestions that, in your view, are likely to turn off the target audience (see above), and (2) other things being equal, incorporate the suggestions from the most powerful adviser.
Cutaneous afferents are responsible for a wide range of sensations discount sildigra 100mg mastercard, but most are also capable of modula- Withdrawal responses ting motor behaviour through spinal best sildigra 50 mg, supraspinal Theseresponseshaveaspinalpathwayandarecom- and transcortical pathways cheap sildigra 100 mg on line. There is a tendency for monly but erroneously thought to involve a ﬂexor clinicians to group all cutaneous afferents together purchase sildigra 120mg overnight delivery, synergy activated by a nociceptive stimulus buy sildigra 50 mg visa. With- and this creates confusion, leads to the usage of dif- drawal reﬂexes have a speciﬁc organisation, are rea- ferent terms for the same function and the same sonablystereotyped,andareelicitedbyconvergence term for different functions, and makes the systems of noxious and tactile stimuli (cf. A thesis of this ﬂexion reﬂex, the corresponding pathways were book, addressed in many chapters, is that cutaneous named FRA (ﬂexor reﬂex afferent) pathways. The nociceptive withdrawal vant pathways is inhibited by activation of pathways (ﬂexion) reﬂex was subsequently shown to be poly- mediating short-latency FRA reﬂexes. The organisa- synaptic (for references, see Hunt & Perl, 1960), and tionoflong-latencyFRApathwayssuggeststhatthey this was conﬁrmed by intracellular recordings from play a role in the generation of locomotor stepping motoneurones (R. Eccles & Lundberg, 1959;Holmqvist & The above responses can be generated by stimu- Lundberg, 1961). Further investigations showed that lating cutaneous afferents in isolation. In addition, administration of DOPA in the acute spinal cat cutaneous afferents contribute to shaping the motor suppressed short-latency FRA responses, releasing output through their extensive convergence on transmission in a long-latency FRA pathway, which interneurones interposed in pathways fed by mus- had a half-centre organisation, capable of gener- cleafferentsorcorticospinalvolleys(cf. Chapters3–7 ating alternating activation of extensors and ﬂexors and 10), and onto PAD interneurones mediat- (Jankowska et al. However, when cutaneous and FRA volleys elicit different effects in Initial ﬁndings the same motoneurone(s), there is evidence for a specialised cutaneous pathway. Investigations of spinal reﬂexes received impetus from the work of Sherrington (1906, 1910)onthe Reﬂexes elicited by low-threshold nociceptive ﬂexion reﬂex. He showed that, in the cutaneous afferents spinalised decerebrate animal, noxious skin stim- The toe extensor reﬂex of the cat uli excite ﬂexors and inhibit extensors in the ipsilat- eral hindlimb (the ﬂexion reﬂex), accompanied by This is the most clear-cut example of a specialised excitation of extensors and inhibition of ﬂexors in cutaneous reﬂex. Gentle pressure on the central the contralateral limb (the crossed extension reﬂex). The ensuing movement gives rise to an impulse ﬂow in FRA which is channelled back into the reﬂex already activated, so that its activity is reinforced and prolonged (see p. From data in Engberg (1964)(a), and modiﬁed from Schouenborg (2002)(b), Lundberg (1973, 1979)((c), (d)), and Baldissera, Hultborn & Illert (1981)(e), with permission. Background from animal experiments 387 response in the plantar ﬂexors of the toes (i. This reﬂex is due ingmotoneurones,presumablydesignedfordiscrete to the activation of slowly adapting mechanorecep- movementsofthedifferentdigits(Sasakietal. This extensor activation Cutaneousreﬂexesduringlocomotionarealsomedi- is appropriate to avoid the stimulus. Inchronicspinal speciﬁc relationship between receptive ﬁeld, acti- cats walking on a treadmill, tactile stimuli applied to vated muscle(s) and the resulting reﬂex withdrawal thedorsumofthepawevokeshort-latencyresponses has been revealed both in the rat and the cat (for involving the ﬂexors during the swing phase, but review, see Schouenborg, 2002). The responses in ate cutaneous receptive ﬁeld corresponding to the knee muscles are stronger and have shorter laten- skin area withdrawn by contraction of the partic- cies than those of ankle and hip muscles. This is illustrated for the recep- ternandtimingofactivation(i)distinguishtheabove tive ﬁelds for withdrawal reﬂexes involving the pero- responses from FRA-induced responses, which are neus longus, tibialis anterior and biceps of the cat in stereotyped and synchronous in all ﬂexors, and (ii) Fig. Isolatedkneeﬂexion (ii) Nociceptors and, to a lesser extent, slowly early in swing is sufﬁcient to overcome the obstacle adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors provide touched by the pad dorsum, whereas the increased the afferent input to withdrawal reﬂex pathways. Projections to motoneurones innervating Reﬂexes in the forelimb slow- and fast-twitch motor units In the forelimb of the cat, low-threshold cutaneous A differentiation between FRA pathways and spe- afferents project to segmental interneurones inter- cialised cutaneous pathways has also been pos- posed in proprioceptive pathways (cf. Introduction, sible in the motoneurones innervating fast-twitch and Hongo et al. Alstermark & Lundberg, 1992; Chapter are excited from cutaneous afferents but inhibited 10,p. Burke, Jankowska & evokes highly specialised reﬂexes in digit motoneu- ten Bruggencate, 1970). A descending action on specialised reﬂex pathways from skin has been inferred because facilitation of cutaneous effects may occur without concomi- FRA reﬂex pathways tant changes in the FRA effects evoked from high- threshold muscle afferents. Flexor reﬂex afferents (FRA) (i) Rubrospinal facilitation of low-threshold cuta- neous excitation of extensor motoneurones inner- FRA include group III and, in the cat, group II vatingfastmotorunits(cf. Because of this convergence, above for specialised cutaneous pathways and in descending excitation of the relevant interneurones Chapter 7 for group II pathways. There are two may receive feedback reinforcement by impulses reﬂex patterns from the FRA: the short-latency evokedfromtheplantarcushionduringcontactwith (early) reﬂexes found in the acute spinal cat, and the ground (see Fig.
The hierarchical organization of biological structural units from the cellular to the organismal levels (cell organelles cheap 120mg sildigra, nuclei buy sildigra 25mg without a prescription, neurons discount 100 mg sildigra with amex, synapses discount sildigra 50mg line, neural groups sildigra 100mg low cost, nervous tissue, and cerebral organs), naturally suggested a hierarchical representa- tion of a system. However, the hierarchical aspect of the corresponding functional organization is far from evident. The novel three-dimensional representation of a biological system that one of us has proposed (G. Chauvet, 1996a), with axes for space scales, time scales, and structural units, allows visualization of the coupling between the structural and functional organizations. This representation is based es- sentially on the determination of the time scales of the dynamic systems describing physiological functions. This functional hierarchy is useful for determining the phys- iological functions associated with nervous structures. In the case of real neural net- works, there are at least two physiological functions: the propagation of membrane potential on a time scale on the order of milliseconds, and the modiﬁcation of synap- tic e‰cacy on a time scale on the order of seconds or even hours. Thus, the func- tional order has its origin in a functional hierarchy that is evidently a manifestation of molecular mechanisms. Typically, the artiﬁcial neural networks generally studied have several neuron layers. The structure-function rela- tionship is more evident in this representation than in any other one. The hierarchical network is fundamentally di¤erent and, in particular, possesses speciﬁc emergent properties, that is, properties that appear at a higher level in a new structure. An im- Inputs Outputs (behaviors) Sensory Hierarchical Motor neurons circuit neurons Figure 7. Properties emerge from a lower level and appear at a higher level inside a new structure. This new structure is called a functional unit if, and only if, it has a speciﬁc function. Mathematical Modeling of Neuromimetic Circuits 133 portant advantage of the hierarchical representation is that it o¤ers a rigorous ap- proach to the notion of a functional unit that may now be deﬁned as a structural unit with a speciﬁc function at a higher level of organization (G. The functional unit, possessing its own time scale, incorporates a new function that can be derived mathematically from the lower levels of organization in a biological system. For example, a neuromimetic circuit may be considered as a functional unit. Hierarchical Representation of a Biological Theory of Functional Organization Functional Interactions In the course of our work on physiological models, ranging from the molecular to the organismal levels (G. Chauvet, 1996b), some novel ideas speciﬁc to the study of biology have been introduced, in particular the concepts of nonsymmetric and non- local functional interactions in hierarchical space. These basic concepts emerged from a bottom-up approach to living systems; that is, from a systematic study of iso- lated physiological functions, followed by the integration of these functions at the level of the organism. A signiﬁcant consequence of this theory is that living organ- isms can be given not only a double organizational representation that is simultane- ously structural and functional but also a double mathematical representation that is simultaneously geometric and topological. We may compare it to a mathematical function in the sense that the action of one structure on another results in a certain product. The physiological function would then be the action (the application, in mathematical terms) and the product would be the result of the function (the value of the function, in mathematical terms) that is often identiﬁed with the physiological function itself. Although this deﬁnition is general, it is unfortunately not operational. It is relatively easy to describe particular physiological functions such as vision, di- gestion, memorization, and so on, but it is far more di‰cult to give an operational deﬁnition of a physiological function in general. One possibility may be to deﬁne a physiological function in terms of a combinatorial set of functional interactions between structures. Such functional interactions are evidently speciﬁc since they de- scribe the action (whatever its nature) of one structure on another or, more precisely, the action of a source on a sink, after the action has undergone a transformation in the source. In addition, it has another important property, that of nonlocality, a notion somewhat more di‰- cult to appreciate since it stems from the structural hierarchy of the system (G. This may be explained as follows: (1) From a mathematical point of view, in a continuous representation, the action of one structure on another is necessarily the 134 G. This does not correspond to the action of one cell on another in physical space since a cell contains regions with specialized functions and therefore cannot be reduced to a point.
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