By V. Abe. Temple University. 2018.
This quantum field is infinite in potential yasmin 3.03mg free shipping, and the source of all simple and more complex interactions that give rise to the manifest universe generic 3.03mg yasmin free shipping. Human physiology is of course included in this manifest universe yasmin 3.03mg fast delivery, and has underlying it the same absolute 3.03mg yasmin with visa, quantum field of infinite potential. As such, it is the source of order in the structure and function of the human organism. Consciousness is considered in our Western allopathic paradigm to be the product of physiology, and in particular of the coordinated functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). The Vedic perspective adds yet another layer to our understanding of consciousness, which serves as a grand unification of our objective scientific observations and our subjective experience of awareness. The central theme of the Vedas is that the unmanifest field underlying the physical universe, including human physiology, the field which we recognize as infinite in its potential, characterized more recently as the quantum field, is the same field we call consciousness. In this paradigm, consciousness is not merely the product of the human nervous system but is the source of that system. The unique feature of the human central nervous system is that it is able to experience this unmanifest field at its basis. In so doing, it experiences the fundamental unmanifest field as the basis of the rest of the physical universe as well. For the purpose of clarity, we will refer to this unbounded field experienced on the level of the mind as Consciousness, to distinguish it from the usual waking state consciousness. Experiences of this underlying field of pure awareness have been documented throughout the Vedic literature and in both religious and secular literature of numerous cultures throughout recorded history. Furthermore, the Vedic literature expounds upon the importance of the experience of pure awareness for promotion of 2 health and success in life. An example is found in the often quoted Bhagavad Gita, from the branch of the Vedic literature termed Itihasa. The main character, Arjuna, faced with the prospect of killing his own kinsmen, is perplexed about what action he should take on the battlefield. THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE AS A CORNERSTONE OF VEDIC MEDICINE In practical terms, the means of experience of pure awareness is by a mental technique. The regular experience of pure awareness is a cornerstone of ayurveda, and more specifically of the Vedic approach to health as recently introduced by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. In recent clinical and scientific literature, it is often referred to as the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health (MVAH) or Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM). The experience of pure awareness is by means of a systematic mental technique, whereby a thought is experienced on finer and finer levels of its inception, until thought itself is transcended, and one is aware, but without an object of awareness. It is often referred to as the source of Complementary therapies in neurology 174 thought or as explained above, the experience of the quantum field on the level of the mind. The technique for transcending thought to arrive at pure awareness is a technique of meditation, specifically, the TM technique. The importance of the TM technique in a modern system of ayurveda (MVAH) cannot be overemphasized. It is the cornerstone of Vedic medicine because this mental experience has associated with it profound physiological changes measured both during and after the practice. It is in fact a distinct state of physiological functioning, unlike the waking, dreaming and slow wave sleep states with which we are familiar. Figure 1 summarizes the differ- Figure 1 Four states of consciousness characterized physiologically and by level of alertness. This alertness is more properly characterized as pure awareness, because while the individual is alert, his awareness is not bound or localized by any particular thought. Through regular practice of this simple technique, one begins to carry over the experience of pure awareness beyond the period of meditation, and into activity. When pure awareness is stabilized physiologically during waking, dreaming and sleeping states, the full mental and physiological potential of the individual has been realized. In Vedic terms, such an individual is said to enjoy perfect health, while enjoying the true blissful nature of the mind, pure awareness, throughout all activity. Ayurvedic medicine 175 RESEARCH ON THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE Initial physiological research revealed decreased oxygen consumption and decreased 4 arterial lactate during TM, and further research has provided an electroencephalographic 6–11 (EEG) signature to this state, with increased alpha power both frontally and posteriorly, and a profound increase in coherence of cortical activity between frontal and parietal regions of the same hemisphere and between corresponding lobes of the left and right hemispheres.
Despite efforts to minimize movement yasmin 3.03mg fast delivery, ambient light discount 3.03 mg yasmin with mastercard, and thermal artifacts cheap yasmin 3.03 mg with mastercard, a small amount of noise in the processed images is difficult to avoid order yasmin 3.03mg on line. While open OI has been successfully performed in humans, it remains a research tool and will require further reliability testing and technical modifications before it can become feasible for routine clinical use. Light emitted from the probe was scattered by the surrounding brain tissue (target tissue morphol- ogy and volume estimated as a ¼ sphere with a 100-micrometer diameter) and delivered to a spectrometer through the six light detecting fibers. The measured slopes obtained from reflectance wavelength plots were signifi- cantly greater in white matter (mean of 2. The authors demonstrated that stereotactic near-infrared imaging could detect subcortical white matter–gray matter interfaces during stereotactic localization of deep brain nuclei. This may prove a reliable and technically simple alternative to currently used localization methods, including microelectrode recording. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was developed to provide high-resolution tomographic images of the retina and anterior eye. More recently, its utility in detecting functional activity by © 2005 by CRC Press LLC measuring light scattering changes during propagation of action potentials has been demonstrated in the sea slug abdominal ganglion. With stereotactic techniques, it may be possible to adapt OCT to study functional activity in deep brain nuclei. In 1977, Jöbsis was the first to demonstrate the feasibility of transcranial cortical tissue spectroscopy. Most currently used NIRS systems monitor absorption changes associated with changing hemoglobin oxygenation states during cortical stimulation. Since each detector may receive light from multiple sources, light sources are either sequentially switched on and off at high frequency or the incident light from each source is frequency encoded. Each source-detector pair defines a pixel and, through interpolation algorithms, the pixels are smoothed to form a coarse image. NIRS studies of primary motor, somatosensory, and visual areas have shown that the technique is a feasible alternative to invasive open imaging and other functional imaging techniques. Seizure activity has also been investigated with the NIRS technique in comparison to SPECT/EEG localization and magnetic encepha- lography (MEG) focus. During three trials with OI, tongue movements produced the greatest IOS changes within the tongue and palate somatosensory areas as identified by ESM. These IOS changes were similar to those associated with cortical activation after bipolar stimulation, indicating that they reflected somatosensory cortical activation most likely from sensory feedback associated with tongue movements. Motor cortex associated with face movements (as identified by ESM) demonstrated IOS changes in the negative direction during tongue movement. An alternative explanation is that the increased blood flow associated with somatosen- sory activation caused a shunting of blood flow away from primary motor cortex. We are currently investigating the relationship of blood volume and electrophysio- logical changes to determine which mechanism underlies this phenomenon. Similarly, Shoham and Grinvald elicited somatosensory cortical activation with electrical and tactile peripheral stimulation in 15 patients undergoing brain tumor or AVM resections under general anesthesia. However, they were able to obtain reproducible high-resolution somatosensory IOS maps from the hand area in nonhuman primates. The observed IOS changes associated with peripheral tactile stimulation correlated closely with single and multiunit cortical recordings. These findings confirmed the association of positive IOS changes and somatosensory cortical activation. Intraoperative OI may provide greater effi- ciency and detail during the functional localization of multiple cognitive and lan- guage functions. Images obtained during naming showed activation of the premotor cortex, while the sites identified with ESM as demonstrating speech arrest and palate tingling yielded IOS changes in the opposite direction. The area that showed the greatest positive IOS changes during tongue movement was clearly different from the active area in the naming exercise.
In other words order yasmin 3.03mg without a prescription, the clear- dichlorphenam ide (D aranide) buy yasmin 3.03 mg with visa, and m ethazolam ide ance of solute-free water (CH 2O ) is greater than the os- (Neptazane) are the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors m olar clearance (Cosm ) buy yasmin 3.03 mg visa. The driving force for water trans- anhydrase decreases bicarbonate reabsorption discount 3.03mg yasmin free shipping, and this port is the osm otic gradient between the m edullary in- accounts for their diuretic effect. NaCl and urea are the anhydrase inhibitors affect both distal tubule and col- two m ajor solutes accounting for the hypertonicity. The lecting duct H secretion by inhibiting intracellular car- NaCl in the interstitium results from the reabsorption of bonic anhydrase. The fractional excretion of Na is The thiazidelike com pounds, including chlorthali- generally lim ited to 5%, as a consequence of down- done (H ygroton), quinethazone (H ydrom ox), and stream com pensatory Na reabsorption. A lthough dis- m etolazone (Zaroxolyn) have sim ilar m echanism s of tal nephron sites recapture m uch of the Na, they pos- action, but they differ substantially from one another in sess only a lim ited ability to absorb H CO. Fractional their duration of action, the degree of carbonic anhy- 3 K excretion, however, can be as m uch as 70%. The form ation of alkaline urine and to m etabolic acidosis as Na –Cl cotransport takes place on the lum inal surface a result of both H CO 3 loss and im paired H secretion. Thus, to exert their diuretic The m ain therapeutic use of carbonic anhydrase in- action, the thiazides m ust reach the lum inal ﬂuid. Since hibitors is not for the production of diuresis but in the the thiazide diuretics are largely bound to plasm a pro- treatm ent of glaucom a. This is true especially of the top- teins and therefore are not readily ﬁltered across the ically applied com pound dorzolam ide (Trusopt). The pends on carbonic anhydrase, acetazolam ide has proved drugs then travel along the nephron, presum ably being to be a useful adjunct to the usual therapy for lowering concentrated as ﬂuid is abstracted, until they reach their intraocular pressure. O ral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are iazide shows any appreciable carbonic anhydrase in- also useful in preventing or treating acute m ountain hibitory activity. A dverse reactions are m inor; they include loss of appetite, drowsiness, confusion, and tingling in the Renal Response extrem ities. A nim al studies have shown som e terato- genic potential, so the use of carbonic anhydrase in- W hen adm inistered at m axim al doses, chlorothiazide hibitors is not recom m ended during the ﬁrst trim ester m arkedly increases excretion of Na,K,C l, and of pregnancy. M axim al diuresis m ay approach values as high 3 Thiazide Diuretics Thiazide diuretics consist of two distinct groups: those T A B L E 21. The lat- Generic Name Trade Names ter are called thiazidelike diuretics; they include metola- Bendroﬂum ethiazide Naturetin zone, xipamide, and indapamide. The major thiazide and Benzthiazide A quatag, Exna thiazidelike drugs available in the United States are Chlorothiazide D iuril bendroﬂumethiazide, benzthiazide, chlorothiazide, hy- H ydrochlorothiazide Esidrix, H ydroD IU RIL H ydroﬂum ethiazide Saluron, D iucardin drochlorothiazide, hydroﬂumethiazide, methyclothiazide, M ethyclothiazide Enduron,A quatensen polythiazide, and trichlormethiazide; and chlorthalidone, Polythiazide Renese indapamide, metolazone, and quinethazone, respectively. Trichlorm ethiazide Naqua, M etahydrin D espite the structural distinctions, the drugs share Chlorthalidone H ygroton the functional attribute of increasing sodium and chlo- Indapam ide Lozol M etolazone Zaroxolyn, D iulo ride excretion by inhibiting Na –Cl cotransport in dis- Q uinethazone H ydrom ox tal convoluted tubules. A t usual clinical gestive heart failure, cirrhosis, prem enstrual tension, doses, however, the thiazide diuretics generally increase and horm one therapy. They are widely used in the treat- excretion of Na and Cl, with an accom panying loss of m ent of hypertension whether or not it is accom panied K. They can be used in patients hibitors, the diuresis produced by thiazide and thiazide- with renal disease; however, their diuretic activity is like diuretics is of NaCl and not NaH CO 3. The urinary proportional to the residual tubular functional capacity K wasting induced by the thiazides is prim arily a con- of the kidney. The thiazides do not prevent toxem ia in sequence of the increased Na delivered to the distal pregnancy, nor are they useful in the treatm ent of it. W ith these com pounds, Na excre- tion is increased, while Ca excretion is decreased, pri- Thiazides should be used cautiously in the presence of m arily and directly because of increased distal Ca re- severe renal and hepatic disease, since azotem ia and absorption, secondarily and indirectly because of a com a m ay result. The m ost im portant toxic effect associ- com pensatory elevation of proxim al solute absorption, ated with this class of diuretics is hypokalem ia, which m aking this class of diuretics useful in treating hypercal- m ay result in m uscular and central nervous system ciuria. This effect, which m ay not be evident upon initial sym ptom s, as well as cardiac sensitization (see adm inistration of the drug, is particularly beneﬁcial in H ypokalem ia). A ppropriate dietary and therapeutic m easures their utility in treating nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The thiazides also possess som e diabetogenic whose kidneys fail to respond to A D H excrete large potential, and although pancreatitis during thiazide volum es of very dilute urine, not unlike those who have therapy has been reported in a few cases, the m ajor an A D H deﬁciency. The thiazides reduce glom erular ﬁl- m echanism contributing to the potential for glucose in- tration m odestly and decrease positive free water for- tolerance is not known.
Melatonin is not generally recommended for use on a regular basis since its long-term conse- Ketones—The potentially toxic by-products of quences are not known effective yasmin 3.03 mg. Mai Tran However in 2002 yasmin 3.03mg discount, a review of nine trials revealed that taking 5 mg of melatonin between 10 pm and mid- Melanoma see Skin cancer night at the destination helped travelers fall asleep faster and sleep better discount yasmin 3.03mg line. Melatonin has also been touted by some as an anti- aging agent following the results of an experiment in Italy purchase yasmin 3.03 mg. An Italian researcher reported that in a laboratory Melatonin experiment, older mice appeared to grow younger and Description live longer after receiving melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone produced naturally in the Animal tests in Spain and China have appeared to show pineal gland at the base of the brain. It is important in that melatonin can help prevent some cancers, heart dis- regulating sleep, and may play a role in maintaining cir- ease, and brain degeneration. The hypo- efits, long-term effects, and proper dosage are being con- thalamus keeps track of the amount of sunlight that is ducted through the National Institutes on Aging. The less sunlight, the more mela- tonin that is released by the pineal gland, thereby en- In laboratory and animal experiments, melatonin ap- hancing and regulating sleep. In 2002, researchers in Turkey presented prelimi- General use nary results of a trails that suggested melatonin could be A variety of medical uses for melatonin have been useful in protecting peripheral blood cells from the dam- reported but its current popularity stems from its promo- age caused by radiation therapy treatments given to can- tion as a sleep aid and to reduce jet lag. Natural melatonin production de- creases with age and the decrease is associated with Preparations some sleep disorders, particularly in the elderly. Melatonin is available over the counter in varying According to a Gallup Poll taken in 1995 for the Na- doses of up to 3 mg per tablet. However, a fraction of tional Sleep Foundation, about half of all American this is required for insomnia, usually about 0. Too much melatonin or taking it at the wrong time can interrupt normal circadian patterns. It is only one of two hormones (the other is regulates waking and sleeping periods. Natural, animal, and bovine mela- produced by the adrenal glands, that is important tonin supplements contain actual extracts from pineal in making other hormones, especially estrogen glands. It is similar in Estrogen—A hormone that stimulates develop- molecular structure to melatonin produced in the body. The proper dosage is not known, but it appears to Hypertension—Abnormally high blood pressure differ greatly depending on the individual and extent of in the arteries. Persons starting the hormone should begin with a very low dose, 100-300 mcg, which is 0. For jet lag, the gener- Pineal gland—A gland about the size of a pea at al recommendation is 300 mcg just before boarding the the base of the brain that is part of the endocrine flight and 1. A researcher reported in 2002 that cherries, espe- cially tart varieties, are very rich in melatonin. He rec- side effects such as nightmares, headaches, morning ommended choosing firm, plump, shiny cherries with hangover, depression, and impaired sex drive. They can be frozen whole with stems after rinsing and draining well, then Interactions spread in a single layer on a baking sheet and frozen Melatonin should not be taken by people using cer- until firm. Cherries can be frozen in plastic freezer bags tain antidepressants, such as Prozac (a serotonin in- or containers. Cherry juice also retains the antioxidants hibitor) or Nardil (a monoamine oxidase inhibitor). Prelimi- Precautions nary symptoms include confusion, sweating, shaking, Women who are on estrogen or estrogen replacement fever, lack of coordination, elevated blood pressure, di- therapy should not take melatonin without consulting their arrhea, and convulsions. Since the safety of melatonin use during pregnan- cy has not been adequately studied, women who are preg- Resources nant or breast feeding a child should not take melatonin. Boost Your Vitality With Melatonin: Program- using it since some research suggests it may have a con- ming Your Internal Clock for Health & Well Being.
Fortunately discount 3.03 mg yasmin with visa, tolerance to nitrate-induced head- pathetic nervous system activity is a common feature in ache develops after a few days of therapy generic 3.03 mg yasmin otc. Based on their ability to reduce potension and tachycardia can be minimized by proper oxygen demand generic 3.03 mg yasmin overnight delivery, all -blockers tested so far have also dosage adjustment and by instructing the patient to sit been shown to be effective in the treatment of second- 17 Antianginal Drugs 201 ary angina generic 3.03mg yasmin mastercard. Administration of these compounds results and thereby attenuate the myocardial response to stress in a decrease in frequency of anginal attacks, a reduc- or exercise (Fig. The resting heart rate is reduced tion in nitroglycerin consumption, an increased exercise by propranolol, but not to the same extent as is the de- tolerance on the treadmill, and a decreased magnitude crease in exercise-induced tachycardia. Overall, propra- of ST segment depression on the electrocardiogram nolol reduces myocardial oxygen consumption for a during exercise. Although the mechanisms responsible angina in the United States include propranolol and for this antihypertensive effect are not completely un- nadolol (Corgard), compounds that block both 1- and derstood, they are thought to involve (1) a reduction in 2-adrenoceptors equally, while atenolol (Tenormin) cardiac output, (2) a decrease in plasma renin activity, and metoprolol (Lopressor) are cardioselective 1- (3) an action in the central nervous system, and (4) a re- receptor antagonists. Thus, propranolol may ex- ert a part of its beneﬁcial effects in secondary angina by decreasing three of the major determinants of myo- Mechanism of Action cardial oxygen demand, that is, heart rate, contractility, The myocardial response to exercise includes an in- and systolic wall tension. These Propranolol and other -blockers also have been effects are mediated in part by the sympathetic nervous shown to produce an increase in oxygen supply to the system. The mechanism re- antagonize the actions of catecholamines on the heart sponsible for this effect is most likely related to the Afterload Preload Heart rate Contractility Stenosis diameter Wall tension Site of occlusion Collateral vessel diameter Transmural blood flow epicardial Ischemic area endocardial FIGURE 17. Because subendocardial By attenuating the cardiac response to exercise, propra- blood ﬂow and ﬂow distal to severe coronary artery nolol and other -blockers increase the amount of ex- stenosis occur primarily during diastole, this increase in ercise that can be performed before angina develops. Finally, there is evidence that - Propranolol is particularly indicated in the manage- blockers can inhibit platelet aggregation. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion Propranolol may be combined with the use of nitro- Propranolol is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal glycerin, the latter drug being used to control acute at- tract, but it is avidly extracted by the liver as the drug tacks of angina. This organic nitrates theoretically should enhance the thera- effect explains the large variation in plasma levels of peutic effects of each and minimize their adverse effects propranolol seen after oral drug administration. Because of these interindividual variations in the ki- Propranolol and nadolol also have been used suc- netics of propranolol, the therapeutic dose of this drug cessfully in combination with certain calcium entry is best determined by titration. End points of titration blockers, particularly nifedipine, for the treatment of include relief of anginal symptoms, increases in exercise secondary angina. Caution should be used, however, tolerance, and plasma concentration of propranolol be- when combining a -blocker and a calcium channel tween 15 and 100 ng/mL. For additional details on the blocker, such as verapamil or diltiazem, since the nega- pharmacokinetics of propranolol and other -receptor tive inotropic and chronotropic effects of this combina- antagonists approved for clinical use in the treatment of tion may lead to severe bradycardia, arteriovenous angina pectoris, see Table 17. Two members of this group, vera- Abrupt interruption of propranolol therapy in individu- pamil (Calan) and diltiazem (Cardiazem), also have als with angina pectoris has been associated with reap- been approved for use in the therapy of certain pearance of angina, acute myocardial infarction, or death supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (see Chapter 16). When it is advisable to discontinue propranolol Their major hemodynamic effects on the primary deter- administration, such as before coronary bypass surgery, minants of myocardial oxygen supply and demand are the dosage should be tapered over 2 to 3 days. A comparison of the effects of all three classes of antianginal drugs on these impor- Calcium Entry or Calcium Channel tant parameters is summarized in Table 17. Blockers The calcium entry blockers or calcium channel block- ers are a group of orally active drugs that have been ap- proved for use in the treatment of vasospastic and ef- Afterload Preload Heart rate Stenosis diameter Contractility Wall tension Site of occlusion Collateral vessel diameter Transmural blood flow epicardial Ischemic area endocardial FIGURE 17. A patient comes to your ofﬁce with effort-induced (E) An increase in blood ﬂow through a concentric angina and resting tachycardia. You choose the fol- stenosis lowing drug to treat the patient because it slows heart rate by blocking L-type calcium channels in ANSWERS the SA node: 1. Nitroglycerin can reduce preload, which in turn cial results observed in patients with secondary reduces wall tension and increases subendocardial angina? Nitroglycerin also reduces afterload, but (A) Reduction in the force of myocardial contrac- this is a small effect compared to the reduction in tion preload. Its effects on heart rate and contractility (B) Reduction in systemic vascular resistance (af- are minimal, and if anything reﬂex tachycardia and terload) increase in contractility would be detrimental ef- (C) Increased heart rate fects of too much nitroglycerin. Nitroglycerin can increase heart rate via an in- (E) Increased blood ﬂow to the subepicardium crease in sympathetic tone to the heart due to an 3. A woman is prescribed a combination of drugs con- excessive decrease in blood pressure; propranolol sisting of a nitroglycerin patch and a -blocker, such would block the -receptors responsible for the as propranolol, to treat her attacks of secondary tachycardia. Which effect of propranolol would counter- and its effect to decrease afterload would exacer- act an adverse effect of nitroglycerin?
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