S. Narkam. State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Morrisville.
Because these nonshared environmental differences are nonsystematic and largely accidental or random proven cleocin 150 mg, it will be difficult to ever determine exactly what will happen to a child as he or she grows up generic 150mg cleocin overnight delivery. Although we do inherit our genes cleocin 150 mg on line, we do not inherit personality in any fixed sense discount cleocin 150 mg without a prescription. The effect of our genes on our behavior is entirely dependent upon the context of our life as it Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Based on your genes, no one can say what kind of human being you will turn out to be or what you will do in life. Because these differences are nonsystematic and largely accidental or random, we do not inherit our personality in any fixed sense. Do they seem to be very similar to each other, or does it seem that their differences outweigh their similarities? What does it mean to say that genetics “determines” or “does not determine” our personality? Behavioral genetics: An introduction to how genes and environments interact through development to shape differences in mood, personality, and intelligence. Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. The rank-order consistency of personality traits from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Association between novelty seeking and the type 4 dopamine receptor gene in a large Finnish cohort sample. A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease. Early theories of personality, including phrenology and somatology, are now discredited, but there is at least some research evidence for physiognomy—the idea that it is possible to assess personality from facial characteristics. Personalities are characterized in terms of traits, which are relatively enduring characteristics that influence our behavior across many situations. Psychologists have investigated hundreds of traits using the self-report approach. The trait approach to personality was pioneered by early psychologists, including Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck, and their research helped produce the Five-Factor (Big Five) Model of Personality. The Big Five dimensions are cross-culturally valid and accurately predict behavior. The Big Five factors are also increasingly being used to help researchers understand the dimensions of psychological disorders. A difficulty of the trait approach to personality is that there is often only a low correlation between the traits that a person expresses in one situation and those that he or she expresses in other situations. However, psychologists have also found that personality predicts behavior better when the behaviors are averaged across different situations. People may believe in the existence of traits because they use their schemas to judge other people, leading them to believe that traits are more stable than they really are. An example is the Barnum effect—the observation that people tend to believe in descriptions of their personality that supposedly are descriptive of them but could in fact describe almost anyone. The advantage of projective tests is that they are less direct, but empirical evidence supporting their reliability and construct validity is mixed. There are behaviorist, social-cognitive, psychodynamic, and humanist theories of personality. The psychodynamic approach to understanding personality, begun by Sigmund Freud, is based on the idea that all behaviors are predetermined by motivations that lie outside our awareness, in Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Freud proposed that the mind is divided into three components: id, ego, and superego, and that the interactions and conflicts among the components create personality. Freud also believed that psychological disorders, and particularly the experience of anxiety, occur when there is conflict or imbalance among the motivations of the id, ego, and superego and that people use defense mechanisms to cope with this anxiety.
The client with borderline person- ality disorder commonly exhibits a pattern of interaction with others that is characterized by clinging and distancing behav- iors generic 150 mg cleocin with mastercard. When clients are clinging to another individual discount 150 mg cleocin, they may exhibit helpless purchase 150 mg cleocin with amex, dependent buy discount cleocin 150 mg on-line, or even childlike behaviors. They overidealize a single individual with whom they want to spend all their time, with whom they express a frequent need to talk, or from whom they seek constant reassurance. Acting-out behaviors, even self-mutilation, may result when they cannot be with this chosen individual. Distancing be- haviors are characterized by hostility, anger, and devaluation of others, arising from a feeling of discomfort with closeness. Distancing behaviors also occur in response to separations, confrontations, or attempts to limit certain behaviors. Deval- uation of others is manifested by discrediting or undermining their strengths and personal signiﬁcance. Splitting is a primitive ego defense mechanism that is common in people with borderline personality disorder. It arises from their lack of achievement of object constancy and is manifested by an inability to integrate and accept both posi- tive and negative feelings. In their view, people—including themselves—and life situations are either all good or all bad. In their efforts to prevent the separation they so desperately fear, clients with this disorder become masters of manipulation. Playing one individual against another is a common ploy to allay these fears of abandonment. Repetitive, self-mutilative be- haviors, such as cutting, scratching, and burning, are classic manifestations of borderline personality disorder. Although these acts can be fatal, most commonly they are manipulative gestures designed to elicit a rescue response from signiﬁcant others. Suicide attempts are not uncommon and often result from feelings of abandonment following separation from a signiﬁcant other. Individuals with borderline personality dis- order have poor impulse control based on primary process functioning. Many times these acting-out behaviors occur in response to real or perceived feelings of abandonment. Transient episodes of extreme stress can precipitate periods of dissociation in the individual with borderline personality disorder. Common Nursing Diagnoses and Interventions (Interventions are applicable to various health-care settings, such as inpatient and partial hospitalization, community outpatient clinic, home health, and private practice. At risk for behaviors in which an individual demon- strates that he or she can be physically, emotionally, and/or sexu- ally harmful either to self or to others. Related/Risk Factors (“related to”) [Extreme fears of abandonment] [Feelings of unreality] [Depressed mood] [Use of suicidal gestures for manipulation of others] [Unmet dependency needs] Low self-esteem [Unresolved grief] Personality Disorders ● 283 [Rage reactions] [Physically self-damaging acts (cutting, burning, drug overdose, etc. Do this through rou- tine activities and interactions; avoid appearing watchful and suspicious. Close observation is required so that intervention can occur if required to ensure client’s (and others’) safety. Secure a verbal contract from client that he or she will seek out a staff member when the urge for self-mutilation is expe- rienced. Discussing feelings of self-harm with a trusted indi- vidual provides some relief to the client. A contract gets the subject out in the open and places some of the responsibility for his or her safety with the client. If self-mutilation occurs, care for the client’s wounds in a matter-of-fact manner. Do not give positive reinforcement to this behavior by offering sympathy or additional attention.
Drug Ð Drug À Protein complex Drug molecules bound to plasma proteins have no pharmacological effect until they are released from those proteins purchase 150mg cleocin. However cheap 150mg cleocin otc, it is possible for one drug to displace another from a protein if it forms a more stable complex with that protein cleocin 150 mg. This may result in unwanted side effects buy 150mg cleocin mastercard, which could cause compli- cations when designing drug regimens involving more than one drug. Moreover, low plasma protein concentrations can affect the distribution of a drug in some diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Sparingly water soluble compounds may be deposited in the blood vessels, leading to restriction in blood flow. Decompositions such as these can result in a higher dose of the drug being needed in order to achieve the desired pharmacological effect, which increases the risk oftoxic side effects in the patient. However, the active form of some drugs is produced by the decom- position of the administered drug. For example, the bacteriacide prontosil, discovered in 1935, is not active but is metabolized in situ to the antibacterial sulphanilamide. These biotransformations occur mainly in the liver but they can also occur in blood and other organs such as the brain, lungs and kidneys (see Section 9. Metabolism of a drug usually reduces the concen- tration of that drug in the systemic circulation, which normally leads to either a lowering or a complete suppression of the pharmacological action and toxic effects of that drug. Metabolism usually involves more than one route and results in the forma- tion of a sucession of metabolites (Figure 2. Each of these metabolites may have a different or similar activity to the parent drug (see Section 9. Consequently, the activities of all the metabolities of a drug must be considered in the development of a potential drug. Metabolities are frequently more water soluble than their parent drug and because of this are usually excreted in the urine. A slow elimination process can result in a build-up of the drug concentration in the body. This may benefit the patient in that the dose required to maintain the therapeutic effect can be reduced, which in turn reduces the chances of unwanted side effects. Conversely, the rapid elimination of a drug means that the patient has to receive either increased doses, with a greater risk of toxic side effects, or more frequent doses, which carries more risk of under- or over-dosing. The main excretion route for drugs and their metabolites is through the kidney in solution in the urine. However, a significant number of drugs and their metabolic products are also excreted via the bowel in the faeces. However, some of the species lost by these processes are reabsorbed by a recycling process known as tubular reabsorption. Tubular reabsorption is a process normally employed in returning compounds such as water, amino acids, salts and glucose that are important to the well-being of the body from the urine to the circulatory system, but it will also return drug molecules. The reabsorp- tion of acidic and basic drugs is reduced if the pH favours salt formation as charged molecules are not readily transported across membranes (see Appendi- ces 3 and 5). Elimination occurs in the liver by biliary clearance, very large molecules being metabolized to smaller compounds before being excreted. However, a fraction of some of the excreted drugs is reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. This reabsorption can be reduced by the use of suitable substances in the dosage form, for example, the ion exchange resin cholestyramine is used to reduce cholesterol levels by preventing its reabsorption. Bioavailability is not constant but varies with the body’s physio- logical condition. It is now known that a drug is most effective when its shape and electron distribution, that is, its stereoelectronic structure, is complementary to the steroelectronic structure of the active site or receptor. The role of the medicinal chemist is to design and synthesize a drug structure that has the maximum beneficial effects with a minimum of toxic side effects. The stereo- chemistry of the drug is particularly important, as stereoisomers often have different biological effects, which range from inactive to highly toxic (see Table 2.
Food-induced lowering of blood-ethanol profiles and increased rate of elimination immediately after a meal buy cleocin 150mg otc. Lack of observable intoxication in humans with high plasma alcohol concentrations purchase 150mg cleocin. Alcohol and the law: the legal framework of scientific evidence and expert testimony generic cleocin 150 mg without a prescription. Eye signs in suspected drinking drivers: clinical examination and relation to blood alcohol generic cleocin 150 mg online. Acute effects of alcohol on left ventricular function in healthy subjects at rest and during upright exercise. Drunken detain- ees in police custody: is brief intervention by the forensic medical examiner fea- sible? The validity of self-reported alcohol consumption and alcohol prob- lems: a literature review. Assessment and management of individuals under the influence of alcohol in police custody. This chapter aims to pro- vide a broad basis for the understanding of the disease processes and the mecha- nisms that may lead to death and also to provide some understanding of the current thinking behind deaths associated with restraint. The worldwide variations in these definitions have caused, and continue to cause, considerable confusion in any discussion of this subject. For the purposes of this chapter, “in custody” relates to any individual who is either under arrest or otherwise under police control and, although similar deaths may occur in prison, in psychiatric wards, or in other situations where people are detained against their will, the deaths specifically associated with police detention form the basis for this chapter. It is important to distinguish between the different types of custodial deaths because deaths that are related to direct police actions (acts of commission) seem to cause the greatest concern to the family, public, and press. It is also important to remember that police involvement in the detention of individuals From: Clinical Forensic Medicine: A Physician’s Guide, 2nd Edition Edited by: M. These acts are considerably harder to define and perhaps sometimes result from the police being placed in, or assuming, a role of caring (e. Police involvement with an individual can also include those who are being pursued by the police either on foot or by vehicle, those who have been stopped and are being questioned outside the environment of a police station, and those who have become unwell through natural causes while in contact with or in the custody of the police. The definitions of “death in custody” are therefore wide, and attempts at simple definitions are fraught with difficulty. Any definition will have to cover a multitude of variable factors, in various circumstances and with a variety of individuals. The crucial point is that the police owe a duty of care to each and every member of the public with whom they have contact, and it is essential that every police officer, whether acting or reacting to events, understands and is aware of the welfare of the individual or individuals with whom he or she is dealing. The number of deaths recorded in police custody in England and Wales from 1990 to 2002 (2) shows considerable variation year to year but with an encouraging decline from the peak in 1998 (Fig. In contrast, the data from Australia for much of the same period show little change (3) (Fig. These raw data must be treated with considerable care because any changes in the death rates may not be the result of changes in the policy and practice of care for prisoners but of other undetermined factors, such as a decline in arrest rates during the period. Legal Framework In the United Kingdom, all deaths occurring in prison (or youth custody) (4) must be referred to the coroner who holds jurisdiction for that area. How- ever, no such obligation exists concerning deaths in police custody, although the Home Office recommends (5) that all deaths falling into the widest defini- Deaths in Custody 329 Fig. This acceptance that all deaths occurring in custody should be fully investi- gated and considered by the legal system must represent the ideal situation; however, not every country will follow this, and some local variations can and do occur, particularly in the United States. Protocol No standard or agreed protocol has been devised for the postmortem examination of these deaths, and, as a result, variation in the reported details of these examinations is expected. These differences in the procedures and the number and type of the specialist tests performed result in considerable varia- tion in the pathological detail available as a basis for establishing the cause of death and, hence, available for presentation at any subsequent inquest. The absence of a defined protocol hinders the analysis of the results of these examinations and makes even the simplest comparisons unreliable. There is an urgent need for a properly established academic study of all of these deaths, such as that performed in Australia under the auspices of the Australian Insti- tute of Criminology (6), to be instituted in the United Kingdom and the United States. Terminology In addition to the lack of reproducibility of the postmortem examina- tions, the terminology used by the pathologists to define the cause of death, particularly in the form required for the registration of the death, may often be idiosyncratic, and similar disease processes may be denoted by different pathologists using many different phrases.
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