By A. Cole. William Woods University. 2018.


Characteristics of waterborne pathogens 1 2 Size Pathogen Resistance Relative Significance with respect to the ( m) to Chlorine Infectivity protection of human health Bacteria 0 generic augmentin 375 mg mastercard. Low Moderate Most cause gastro-intestinal illness but certain species may give rise to more Shigella spp Low High serious illnesses purchase augmentin 375mg mastercard. Yersinia Low Low The majority are relatively sensitive to enterocolitica Low chlorination 625 mg augmentin, and do not persist in the Campylobacter spp augmentin 625 mg otc. Viruses Norovirus Moderate High leading to human infection tend to be specifically of human origin. They can Parvovirus Moderate High persist for long periods of time in the Adenovirus Moderate High environment and have a moderate resistance to chlorination. Helminths (Parasitic Worms) Visible Drancunculus Moderate High The reported incidence of infection in medinesis developed counties is very low, and does not present a hazard in relation to Schistosoma Moderate High treated drinking water supplies in Ireland 1 At conventional doses and contact times and with a pH between 7 and 8, Low means 99% inactivation at 20°C in generally, 1 minute, Moderate 1-30 minutes and High >30 minutes 2 From epidemiological evidence, High means infective doses between 1 - 100 organisms, Moderate 100- 10,000 and Low >10,000 Faeces of human origin are likely to present the greatest hazard since the range of pathogens will be the greatest and will include all pathogens types. In contrast, faeces of animal origin, predominantly arising from livestock although wildlife can be a significant source in certain situations, contain mainly pathogenic bacteria and protozoa with human pathogenic viruses being absent to a large extent. Bacterial microorganisms were chosen which were associated with faeces, which occurred in sufficiently higher numbers than the pathogens and which were relatively easy to isolate in the laboratory. The traditional role for these bacteria was as a measure of the extent of the pollution and an indication of the likelihood that pathogens associated with faeces may also be present in raw water. Subsequently, the same bacteria were also used to measure the efficiency of water treatment processes. Separate terms have been proposed to avoid confusion between the two different roles that these bacteria were fulfilling. The term index has been applied here where the bacteria are fulfilling their original role and are being used to assess the extent of faecal contamination of raw water. The term indicator represents their use as a measure of process performance or treatment efficiency. Chemical dosage rates are usually based on a chemical concentration combined with a contact time for exposure of the micro-organism to the chemical. Bacteria are generally amongst the most susceptible micro-organisms with an ascending order of resistance from viruses, bacterial spores, to acid-fast bacteria and with protozoan cysts being the most resistant. Consequently applying a chlorine dose that is effective against the more resistant micro- organisms will also be effective against many of the others. Enteric viruses can occur in very high numbers in faeces and most are much more robust in the environment than bacteria. Consequently, they may be present when indicator bacteria, used to assess their occurrence, are absent. The situation is similar for the parasitic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which are considerably more resistant than bacteria to chlorine disinfection. However the occurrence of waterborne human illness due to protozoan parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia and the resistance of such protozoa to chlorination has focussed attention on the consequent challenges which these protozoa pose to treatment and chemical disinfection processes. Cryptosporidium is the reference protozoan pathogen with respect to water treatment and disinfection due to the fact that it is the most persistent in the aquatic environment and is also the smallest protozoan in size thus making difficult its consistent removal by rapid gravity filtration. Much has been done to find better index and indicator micro-organisms but, at present, there is no single micro-organism that satisfactorily meets all the desired criteria. The only reliable indicator of chlorination performance for real-time control of bacteria and viruses is the existence of a target chlorine residual concentration after a specified contact time. Similar principles apply to other chemical disinfectants (chlorine dioxide, ozone). Cryptosporidiosis is self-limiting disease in healthy hosts but represents a life-threatening problem in immuno- compromised individuals for which there is no effective treatment. Although the first description of the genus dates from 1907, its medical importance as a source of human illness was not reported until 1976. Possible transmission routes for protozoan parasites to humans are varied and include Direct human to human, Direct animal to human with the typical spring seasonality in Ireland associated with occupational exposure to calves & lambs Food Recreational water and swimming pools Drinking water which facilitates indirect transmission from human or animal. In addition, it will aid the assessment of the public health significance of Cryptosporidium in animals and the environment, characterise transmission dynamics and help track infection and contamination of sources. Two types, Cryptosporidium parvum (originating from cattle and other mammals) and Cryptosporidium hominis (from humans), are commonly isolated from humans hosts or associated with waterborne outbreaks of human illness. A) exists in the environment as an oocyst of 4-6µm in size which contain four sporozoites protected by an outer shell. C) and replicate the oocysts in the digestive tract of the host This replication of the oocysts within the digestive system of the host and the human illness caused by the body’s efforts to shed the replicating Cryptosporidium oocysts is the condition known as cryptosporidiosis.

Overfeeding does not speed recovery and if the person has diabetes will simply produce hyperglycemia afterwards discount 625mg augmentin visa. One situation where starch may be less effective than glucose or sucrose is when a person is taking acarbose buy augmentin 375mg low price. Since acarbose and other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors prevents starch and other sugars from being broken down into monosaccharide’s that can be absorbed by the body augmentin 375 mg on line, patients taking these medications should consume monosaccharide-containing foods such as glucose powder discount 375mg augmentin amex, honey, or juice to reverse hypoglycemia. The lesions affecting the maxillofacial region (perioral, jaws and face) are also considered here but for a more detail a relevant text book or manual need to be referred. The clinician should be able tqo identify conditions requiring immediate attention by the dentist, do the preliminary urgent and life saving measures where possible before referring the patient to a centre with a dentist/dental surgeon. There are some cases which will need the attention of a specialist dental surgeon (like oral and maxillofacial surgeon, orthodontist e. Diagnostic criteria:  Inflammation of the gingival which is initially seen as discrete colour and texture changes of the marginal tissues. Prevention Instructions for proper oral hygiene care Treatment Removal of accumulated plaque and oral hygiene instructions on tooth brushing and other adjuvant means of oral hygiene (dental flossing, use of mouth washes) 1. The damage of the periodontal membrane, periodontal ligaments and eventually alveolar bone leads to formation of pockets which eventually favours more bacterial growth. Note: Tetracycline should not be given to pregnant and lactating mothers to avoid tetracycline stains in for their babies. Patients usually present with soreness and bleeding of the gums and foul test (fetor-ex ore). Contact stomatitis (a counterpart of contact dermatitis) also can occur due to allergy. Choline salycilate, Benzalkonium chloride and Lignocaine hydrochloride) Note: Mouth washes should not be used at the same time with the gel. Start slowly with white spots later developing to black/brown spot and cavities in enamel, dentine and eventually the pulp. Dental caries is caused by bacteria of the dental plaque which feed on sugary food substrates producing acid as by-products which dissolve the minerals of the tooth surface. Note: The Susceptible sites are those areas where plaque accumulation can occur and be hidden to escape active and passive cleansing mechanisms e. Prevention  Proper instruction to avoid frequent use of sugary foods and drinks  Use fluoridated toothpaste to brush teeth at least once a day Non-pharmacological measures  Early lesions presenting as a spot on enamel without cavitation and softening, observe and adhering to preventive measures. The condition may be acute and diffuse or chronic with fistula or localized and circumscribed. Adult: Paracetamol (O) 500mg – 1g, 4-6 hourly for 3 days, Child: Paracetamol (O) 10-15 mg/kg 4-6 hourly  For anterior teeth (incisors, canine and premolars: Extraction is carried out only when root canal treatment is not possible. Give antibiotics: Adult A: Amoxicillin (O) 500mg, 8 hourly for 5-7 days; Children, Amoxicillin (O) 25 mg/kg in 3 divided doses for 5 days. Plus A: Metronidazole (O); Adult 400mg 8 hourly for 5-7 days 21 | P a g e Children 7-10 years, 100mg every 8 hour Note: Periodontal abscess is located in the coronal aspect of the supporting bone associated with a periodontal pocket. Diagnostic criteria  Severe painful socket 2-4 days after tooth extraction  Fever  Necrotic blood clot in the socket  Swollen gingiva around the socket  Sometimes there may be lymphodenopathy and trismus (Inability to open the mouth) Treatment  Under local anesthesia with Lignocaine 2% socket debridement and irrigation with nd rd Hydrogen peroxide 3%. The procedure of irrigation is repeated the 2 and 3 day and th where necessary can be extended to 4 day if pain persists. The condition is very painful and it defers from infected socket by lack of clot and its severity of pain. Diagnosis  Severe pain 2-4 days post-extraction  Pain exacerbated by entry of air on the site  Socket devoid of clot  It is surrounded by inflamed gingiva Treatment 22 | P a g e Treatment is under local anesthesia with Lignocaine 2% socket debridement and irrigation of nd rd hydrogen peroxide 3%. The procedure of irrigation is repeated the 2 and 3 day and where th necessary can be extended to 4 day if pain persists. Aerobic Gram positive cocci and anaerobic Gram negative rods predominate among others. The predominant species include; Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Streptococcus viridians. Diagnosis  Fever and chills  Throbbing pain of the offending tooth  Swelling of the gingiva and sounding tissues  Pus discharge around the gingiva of affected tooth/teeth  Trismus (Inability to open the mouth)  Regional lymphnodes enlargement and tender  Aspiration of pus for frank abscess Investigations: Pus for Grams stain, culture and sensitivity and where necessary, perform full blood count. Treatment Preliminaries  Determine the severity of the infection  Evaluate the status of the patient’s host defence mechanism  Determine the need of referral to dentist/oral surgeon early enough Non-pharmacological  Incision and drainage and irrigation (irrigation and dressing is repeated daily)  Irrigation is done with 3% hydrogen peroxide followed by rinse with normal saline. Criteria for referral  Rapidly progressive infection  Difficulty in breathing  Difficulty swallowing  Fascia space involvement  Elevated body temperature [greater than 39 C)  Severe jaw trismus/failure to open the mouth (less than 10mm)  Toxic appearance  Compromised host defenses 3.

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Cryptococcosis in Australasia and the treatment of cryptococcal and other fungal infections with liposomal amphotericin B augmentin 375mg sale. Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cheap augmentin 625 mg without prescription, multicenter buy generic augmentin 375mg on line, randomized study buy 625mg augmentin fast delivery. Maternal use of fluconazole and risk of congenital malformations: a Danish population-based cohort study. Prospective assessment of pregnancy outcomes after first-trimester exposure to fluconazole. Infection is endemic to the central and south-central United States and is especially common in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. Asymptomatic dissemination of infection beyond the lungs is common, and cellular immunity is critical in controlling infection. When cellular immunity wanes, reactivation of a silent focus of infection that was acquired years earlier can occur, and it is the presumed mechanism for disease occurrence in nonendemic areas. Diagnosis Detection of Histoplasma antigen in blood or urine is a sensitive method for rapid diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis and acute pulmonary histoplasmosis8 but is insensitive for chronic forms of pulmonary infection. Histopathological examination of biopsy material from involved tissues demonstrates the characteristic 2 to 4 µm budding yeast and can provide a rapid diagnosis. These include creating dust when working with surface soil; cleaning chicken coops that are contaminated with droppings; disturbing areas contaminated with bird or bat droppings; cleaning, remodeling, or demolishing old buildings; and exploring caves. In patients with less severe disseminated histoplasmosis, oral itraconazole, 200 mg 3 times daily for 3 days followed by 200 mg twice daily, is appropriate initial therapy (All). Because absorption of itraconazole can be erratic, a random serum itraconazole level should be obtained after 2 weeks of therapy if there is concern about adherence or if medications with potentially adverse interactions are added to the drug regimen. Fluconazole is less effective than itraconazole for this purpose but has some efficacy at 400 mg daily. No relapses were evident in 32 subjects who were followed for a median of 24 months. At delivery, infants born to women treated with amphotericin B should be evaluated for renal dysfunction and hypokalemia. Congenital malformations similar to those observed in animals, including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, have been reported in infants born to mothers who received fluconazole at doses of 400 mg/day or more through or beyond the first trimester of pregnancy. Random serum concentrations (itraconazole + hydroxyitraconazole) should be >1 µg/mL. Disseminated histoplasmosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment, and review of the literature. Prospective study of histoplasmosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: incidence, risk factors, and pathophysiology. Histoplasmosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected people in Europe: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of 18 cases and literature review. Disseminated histoplasmosis: a comparative study between patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Itraconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Itraconazole treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients at a large Midwestern university transplant center. Transplant infectious disease: an official journal of the Transplantation Society.

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For a spike test this effectively requires continuing sampling until measured tracer concentration has dropped to the background level order augmentin 625mg visa. In the absence of tracer test data generic 625mg augmentin with mastercard, an initial estimate of non-ideality can be made by consideration of the tank design quality augmentin 375 mg, in particular provision of baffling augmentin 375mg for sale. Poor baffling arrangements in contact tank Water Treatment Manual Disinfection For a poorly baffled tank, the contact time used for calculation of Ct using the t10 value would be less that one-third of that derived from dividing the tank volume by flowrate. A good contact tank will have structures in place that: Prevent jetting at the inlet; Distribute the flow across the full width and depth in the direction of flow; Prevent streaming at the outlet. Features to be avoided include: Submerged pipe inlet with no break plate or other means of preventing jetting; Outlet weirs or launders that are not full width; Bell-mouth outlets in the main body of the contact tank. The incorporation of structures within a tank to promote even flow distribution carries a capital cost. However, the design of the service reservoirs often gives little consideration to the flow patterns formed within the tank, other than using top water inlets to limit loss from the reservoirs in the event of pumped main leakage and placing inlet and outlet at opposite sides of the reservoir. As a consequence, these storage assets can be hydraulically very inefficient, with large areas of tanks containing very slow moving or stagnant water making them unsuitable for use as contact tanks. However, if there is a dedicated main to the service reservoir without any consumer connections, this would provide effective contact time to be taken into account in the Ct calculations. In smaller schemes the practice of burying lengths coiled small diameter pipes downstream of dosing points is sometimes employed to provide contact time. Increased length to width ratios and the inclusion of baffle walls in the design of such reservoirs can increase their efficacy for chlorination contact. In addition, changes in operation which affect the ratio of inflows, outflows and operating levels can significantly change the flow profile through the tank. The shape of the diurnal curve of water demand can vary significantly between different supply areas because of differences in water use and local economies. These differences should be taken account of in determining the impact of such daily usage patterns on the effectiveness of service reservoirs for chlorine contact. The prompt provision of additional contact tankage by Water Service Authorities can also often be compromised or delayed by existing site constraints and the need for further land acquisition. The rectification of obvious deficiencies in chemical dosing locations together with the achievement of proper disinfectant mixing using mechanical mixers, correct pH control and improving residual monitoring will all help to mitigate the risk to human health posed by insufficient chlorine contact. Three approaches can in principle be used for defining the value for C: the concentration can be estimated from the area under the chlorine decay curve in the tank; an average oxidant concentration can be derived from the arithmetic mean of the initial dose and the residual concentration; the outlet residual can be used to provide a conservative estimate of concentration. The first of these is the most accurate estimate in relation to the effect of the chlorine, but not readily derived in practical situations. It can be shown that the arithmetic mean overestimates concentrations compared with the calculated decay values, whereas the residual underestimates the effective Water Treatment Manual Disinfection concentration. Free chlorine residual therefore provides a conservative value, which is also practical to monitor, and it is recommended that the free chlorine residual be used for control purposes. At sites where these change slowly, manual adjustment of set points may be adequate to maintain a balance between cost of treatment, security and by-product formation. Separate control of pH is often used, but, in the absence of this or as part of the control regime, alarms on pH should be set to avoid any impairment of chlorination performance with increasing pH. At sites, where turbidity can increase significantly, suitable alarms and/or control systems should be in place to prevent this impairing chlorination performance. If the flow profile at a works makes it preferable to define C for the average flow, it would be necessary to increase the residual concentration at times of higher flow to maintain the target Ct. Ideally this would be taken into account in controlling the residual concentration, by identifying the flow-specific effective tx values. At sites perceived as higher risk, weekly or monthly large volume samples (1 litre or more) can provide assurance that regulatory standards are being met with a high enough margin of safety 4. Some sites provide automatic control of set-point based on the outlet residual - so called, cascade control. Wider experience of such control is that set-points do not need frequent adjustment and that automated adjustment can cause control instability unless systems are very carefully set-up.

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Research across many different disease states has indicated that people benefit more when they get their vitamins and minerals primarily from foods cheap augmentin 625mg on-line, rather than pills order augmentin 375 mg without prescription. This is based in part on the concept of food synergy: vitamins in their natural form are better absorbed and work together for benefits compared with the artificial ratios and chemical derivatives found in many vitamin supplements discount augmentin 625mg online. Furthermore buy discount augmentin 625mg on-line, there is no data to suggest that taking vitamin supplements when you are not actually deficient in those vitamins will improve health or symptoms. In other words, if you have regular levels of vitamin D, for example, you are not likely to receive benefits from taking extra vitamin D pills. It improves bone strength and protects against osteoporosis (low bone density) and fractures from falls. Research cautions that calcium in supplement form carries some risk not present with food sources of calcium. When researchers analyzed data from 8,000 people in 15 studies, they found that if 1,000 people were given calcium supplements for five years, they would experience 14 heart attacks, 10 strokes, and 13 deaths, in exchange for preventing just 26 fractures. It plays an important role in bone health by increasing how much calcium your bones can absorb. Vitamin D is fat-soluble (stored in body fat), so it can be dangerous if taken in high doses. Institute of Medicine recommends that a vitamin D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/ liter) or above is adequate for bone health. A simple blood test can determine if your vitamin D level is low or if you’ve had too much. B Vitamins Diets low in B vitamins are linked with various negative effects, while diets high in B vitamins can lower risk for some conditions. For example: - Low vitamin B12 is linked to cognitive difficulties and peripheral neuropathy (loss of sensation in feet that can worsen balance). Furthermore, vitamins B6, B12, and folate can reduce excessive levels of homocysteine produced when levodopa is metabolized. This is beneficial, as elevated levels of homocysteine can cause blood clots, heart disease, and stroke. Repeated studies show strongest benefits when B vitamins are ingested from foods and fail to show a consistent benefit of taking vitamin B pills in the absence of vitamin B deficiency. Food sources • Vitamin B6 is found in poultry, fish, and organ meats, as well as potatoes and other starchy vegetables. In fact, taking high-dose vitamin E is linked to premature death, underscoring that it is preferable to consume vitamins from food rather than in pill form. Food sources - Vitamin A is found in beef liver and organ meats, but these are high in cholesterol, so limit their intake. Similar to vitamins and minerals, antioxidants from foods display stronger disease-fighting capacity than pill-based antioxidants. Colorful fruits and vegetables, legumes, green tea, coffee, whole grains, and many seeds and nuts are food sources of antioxidants. Glutathione and N-Acetyl Cysteine Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant, but its levels decline as we age. Glutathione is composed of three amino acids (building blocks of protein), so it is digested in the gastrointestinal tract (similar to proteins). This means it is not effective if taken in pill form, as most pills are digested in the stomach. Despite this fact, glutathione is sometimes advertised in pill form, reminding us that supplements and their marketing are not strictly regulated. N-acetyl cysteine is an alternative pill option, since it is converted to glutathione in the body. Inosine and Uric Acid Inosine and uric acid are powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

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