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Three-Dimensional Motion Let d3 denote the unit vector along the axis of the top as shown in Fig discount 25 mg tofranil visa. The center of mass of the top traverses a circle about the vertical axis e3 at a constant precession rate equal to (dC/dt) generic 25mg tofranil. The unit vector e3 remains constant in both reference frames D and E during the spinning of football generic tofranil 25 mg otc, indicating that the motion is planar purchase tofranil 75 mg with amex. The angular velocity of D in E is then given by the following expression: EvD 5 V 5 (dC/dt) e 5 (dC/dt) (2sin u d 1 cos u d ) 3 1 3 V1 52(dC/dt) sin u, V2 5 0 , V3 5 (dC/dt) cos u (9. Angular velocity of the top with respect to E is obtained using the relation: EvB 5 v 5 EvD 1 DvB 5 (dC/dt) (2sin u d 1 cos u d ) 1 (df/dt) d 1 3 3 EvB 5 2(dC/dt) sin u d 1 [(dC/dt) cos u 1 (df/dt)] d 1 3 Ev 52(dC/dt) sin u, v 5 0, v 5 (dC/dt) cos u 1 (df/dt) (9. The moment M is then given by the equation: M 5 h d3 3 (2mg) e3 5 h d3 3 (2mg) (2sin u d1 1 cos u d3) M 5 mgh sin u d2 M1 5 0, M2 5 mgh sin u, M3 5 0 (9. The solution presented indicates that a top could remain inclined to the vertical axis with only the tip touch- ing a horizontal plane so long as it spins fast enough about its own long axis. As the spin rate decreases, the top leans and the center of mass moves downward toward the horizontal plane. If the body under consideration is slender (I3 5 0), then the motion described is not possible. If an aging ballet dancer spins faster on stage in between leaps than he did years before, it is because it is easier to stay in certain postures at higher spin rates. Fur- thermore, contact forces that support the planar motion are found to be three-dimensional. The dancer’s feet are placed next to the pole and she skips in place as she rotates around the pole at a constant rate vo. The angle of inclination u of the dancer with the ver- tical axis remains constant at all times. Our aim is to determine the reac- tion forces exerted on the dancer as a function of angular velocity, height, and weight. These forces consist of the ground forces exerted on the feet and the force exerted by the pole on the hands of the dancer. Let n and t be auxiliary unit vectors in the horizontal plane (e1, e2) defined in Fig. Three-Dimensional Motion b3 e3 (a) (b) e 3 A θ C θ L O e 2 φ t n e1 O n (c) (d) e3 b3 -Tn θ -mge3 b1 fn n O Ve3 FIGURE 9. The unit vector b2 is then perpendicular to both b1 and b3: n 5 cos f e1 1 sin f e2 t 52sin f e1 1 cos f e2 b1 5 cos u (2cos f e1 2 sin f e2) 1 sin u e3 (9. The angular velocity of the rod in the inertial frame E can then be ob- tained by using the three-dimensional definition of angular velocity given 9. Note that the angle u remains constant during motion and therefore its time derivative is zero. Thus we obtain: db1/dt 5 vo cos u (sin f e1 2 cos f e2) db2/dt 5 vo (cos f e1 1 sin f e2) db3/dt 5 vo sin u (2sin f e1 1 cos f e2) in which vo 5 (df/dt). Computation of Reaction Forces To determine the external forces acting on the dancer, we need to con- sider the motion of her center of mass. The position of the center of mass of the rod is given by the expression: rc 5 (L/2) sin u (cos f e 1 sin f e ) 1 (L/2)cos u e (9. The o acceleration of the center of mass is obtained by taking the time deriva- tive of Eqn. The frictional force exerted by the ground is rep- resented by the last term in the left-hand side of Eqn. Three-Dimensional Motion Writing this vectorial equation in scalar components in 2n and e3 di- rections, we find: T 2 f 5 (1/2) mLv 2 sin u (9. Thus, we need to consider the principle of conservation of an- gular momentum to arrive at an additional equation.
Soc Neurosci Abst 22:354 PopratiloffA purchase 75 mg tofranil amex,RustioniA 50mg tofranil with amex,WeinbergRJ(1997)HeterogeneityofAMPAreceptorsinthedorsal column nuclei of the rat order tofranil 50mg mastercard. Brain Res 754:333–339 PopratiloffA tofranil 75 mg discount,WeinbergRJ,RustioniA(1998a)AMPAreceptorsatprimaryafferentsynapses in substantia gelatinosa after sciatic nerve section. Eur J Neurosci 10:3220–3230 Popratiloff A, Weinberg RJ, Rustioni A (1998b) NMDAR1 and primary afferent terminals in the superﬁcial spinal cord. Neuroreport 9:2423–2429 Porreca F, Ossipov MH, Gebhart GF (2002) Chronic pain and medullary descending facili- tation. Trends Neurosci 25:319–325 Porro CA, Cetolo V, Francescato MP, Baraldi P (1998) Temporal and intensity coding of pain in human cortex. J Neurophysiol 80:3312–3320 Portenoy RK, Duma C, Foley KM (1986) Acute herpetic and postherpetic neuralgia: clinical review and current management. Ann Neurol 20:651–664 Price DD (2000) Psychological and neural mechanisms of the affective dimension of pain. Science 288:1769–1772 Price DD, Greenspan JD, Dubner R (2003) Neurons involved in the exteroceptive function of pain. Pain 106:215–219 Rainville P, Duncan GH, Price DD, Carrier B, Bushnell MC (1997) Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science 277:968–971 Raja SN, Meyer RA, Ringkamp M, Campbell JN (1999) Peripheral neural mechanisms of nociception. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 11–57 Ralston HJ (1979) The ﬁne structure of laminae I, II and III of the macaque spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 184:643–684 Ralston HJ, Ralston DD (1979) The distribution of dorsal root axons in laminae I, II and III of the macaque spinal cord: a quantitative electron microscope study. J Comp Neurol 184:643–684 RalstonHJ,RalstonDD(1992)Theprimatedorsalspinothalamictract:evidenceforaspeciﬁc termination in the posterior nuclei (Po/SG) of the thalamus. Pain 48:107–118 Ralston HJ, Ralston DD (1994) Medial lemniscal and spinal projections to the macaque tha- lamus: an electron microscopic study of differing GABAergic circuitry serving thalamic somatosensory mechanisms. J Neurosci 14:2485–2502 104 References Ramer MS, Murphy PG, Richardson PM, Bisby MA (1998) Spinal nerve lesion-induced mechanoallodynia and adrenergic sprouting in sensory ganglia are attenuated in interleukin-6 knockout mice. Pain 78:115–121 Ramer MS, Thompson SW, McMahon SB (1999) Causes and consequences of sympathetic basket formation in dorsal root ganglia. Pain 6 (Suppl):S111–S120 Ramon y Cajal S (1909) Histologie du système nerveux de l’homme et des vertébrés. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientiﬁcas, Instituto Ramon y Cajal, Madrid Ranson SW (1913) The course within the spinal cord of the non-myelinated ﬁbers of the dorsal roots: a study of Lissauer’s tract in the cat. J Comp Neurol 23:259–281 Rees H, Roberts MHT (1993) The anterior pretectal nucleus: a proposed role in the sensory processing. Cancer Control 7:111–119 Reshef E, Greenberg SB, Jankovic J (1985) Herpes zoster ophtalmicus followed by con- tralateral hemiparesis: report of two cases and review of literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 48:122–127 Rexed B (1952) The cytoarchitectonic organization of the spinal cord in the cat. J Comp Neurol 96:415–495 Rexed B (1954) A cytoarchitectonic atlas of the spinal cord in the cat. J Comp Neurol 100:297–379 Rexed B (1964) Some aspects of the cytoarchitectonics and synaptology of the spinal cord. Prog Brain Res 2:58–92 Rexed B, Sourander P (1949) The caliber of central and peripheral neurites of the spinal ganglion cells and variations in ﬁber size at different levels of dorsal spinal roots. J Comp Neurol 91:297–306 Reynolds DV (1969) Surgery in the rat during electrical analgesia induced by focal brain stimulation. Science 164:444–445 Ribeiro-da-Silva A (1995) Substantia gelatinosa of spinal cord. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 47–59 Ribeiro-da-SilvaA,CoimbraA(1982)Twotypesofsynapticglomeruliandtheirdistribution in laminae I–III of the rat spinal cord.
Type V: Crush injury to the physis; diagnosis is generally made retrospectively; prognosis is poor because growth arrest and partial physeal closure commonly result generic tofranil 75mg mastercard. It can cause scaring cheap 75mg tofranil amex, tethering and arrest of the periphery of the epiphyseal plate discount 50 mg tofranil fast delivery, producing angular deformity buy 50mg tofranil amex. SUPRACONDYLAR HUMERUS FRACTURES Classiﬁcation of Extension Type Gartland Classiﬁcation Based on degree of displacement: Type I: Nondisplaced Type II: Displaced with intact posterior cortex; may be slightly angulated or rotated Type III: Complete displacement; Posteromedial or postero- lateral Wilkins Modiﬁcation of Gartland’s Classiﬁcation Type 1: Undisplaced 4. FRACTURES IN CHILDREN 81 Type 2 Type 2A: Intact posterior cortex and angulation only Type 2B: Intact posterior cortex, angulation and rotation Type 3 Type 3A: Completely displaced, no cortical contact, posteromedial Type 3B: Completely displaced, no cortical contact, posterolateral LATERAL CONDYLAR PHYSEAL FRACTURES Milch Classiﬁcation (Figure 4. Type II: Fracture line extends into the apex of the trochlea, rep- resenting a Salter-Harris type II fracture. Group B: Lateral condyle ossiﬁed (7 months to 3 years); Salter- Harris type I or II (ﬂeck of metaphysis). Group C: Large metaphyseal fragment, usually exiting laterally (ages 3 to 7 years). T-CONDYLAR FRACTURES Wilkins and Beaty Classiﬁcation Type I: Nondisplaced or minimally displaced Type II: Displaced, with no metaphyseal comminution Type III: Displaced, with metaphyseal comminution 4. FRACTURES IN CHILDREN 83 RADIAL HEAD AND NECK FRACTURES Wilkins Classiﬁcation (Figure 4. Continued PEDIATRIC FOREARM Descriptive Classiﬁcation Location: Proximal, middle, or distal third Type: Plastic deformation, incomplete ("greenstick"), com- pression ("torus" or "buckle"), or complete displacement angulation Associated physeal injuries: Salter-Harris Types I to V SCAPHOID Classiﬁcation Type A: Fractures of the distal pole Type A1: Extraarticular distal pole fractures Type A2: Intraarticular distal pole fractures Type B: Fractures of the middle third Type C: Fractures of the proximal pole 86 FRACTURE CLASSIFICATIONS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE FIGURE 4. FRACTURES IN CHILDREN 87 TIBIAL SPINE (INTERCONDYLAR EMINENCE) FRACTURES Meyers and McKeever Classiﬁcation (Figure 4. FRACTURES IN CHILDREN 89 CALCANIAL FRACTURES Schmidt and Weiner Classiﬁcation of Calcaneal Fractures Type I: Fracture of the tuberosity of apophyses Type IA: Fracture of the sustentaculum Type IB: Fracture of the anterior process Type IC: Fracture of the anterior inferolateral process Type ID: Avulsion fracture of the body Type II: Fracture of the posterior and/or superior parts of the tuberosity Type III: Fracture of the body not involving the subtalar joint Type IV: Nondisplaced or minimally displaced fracture through the subtalar joint Type V: Displaced fracture through the subtalar joint Type VA: Tongue type Type VB: Joint depression type Type VI: Either unclassiﬁed or serious soft-tissue injury, bone loss, and loss of the insertions of the Achilles tendon Chapter 5 Periprosthetic Fractures PERIPROSTHETIC HIP FRACTURES Vancouver Classiﬁcation (Duncan and Masri) Type A: Involve the trochanteric area (AG involve the greater trochanter, AL involve the lesser trochanter) Type B: Fractures around the stem or extending slightly dis- tal to it (B1 implant well ﬁxed, B2 implant loose, bone stock adequate, B3 implant loose, bone stock inadequate) Type C: Fractures distal to the stem that the presence of the femoral component may be ignored Johansson Classiﬁcation Type I: Fracture proximal to prosthetic tip with the stem remain- ing in the medullary canal Type II: Fracture extending beyond distal stem with dislodge- ment of the stem from the distal canal Type III: Fracture entirely distal to the tip of the prosthesis Cooke And Newman (Modiﬁcation Of Bethea) (Figure 5. Cooke and Newman classiﬁcation of periprosthetic fracture about total hip implants. Reproduced with permission and copyright © of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. See Spine position of occiput Children, fractures in relation to C1, 1 calcaneal, 89 Atlas fractures, Levine and forearm, 85 Edwards classiﬁcation, 1 hip, 86 lateral condylar physeal, B 81–82 Bado classiﬁcation, medial condylar physeal, 82 Monteggia fracture, radial head and neck, 28–29 83–85 98 INDEX Children, fractures in (cont. See joint, ﬁrst, 78 Tarsometatarsal joint INDEX 101 Lunate fractures, Teisen and Monteggia fracture Hjarkbaek classiﬁcation, Bado classiﬁcation, 28–29 34 Letts classiﬁcation, 84–85 Luxatio erecta, 18 Myerson classiﬁcation, tarsometatarsal joint, 76 M Main and Jowell N classiﬁcation, midtarsal Navicular fractures, 72–74 joint, 71–72 Eichenholtz and Levin Mallet fracture, Wehbe and classiﬁcation, 72 Schnider classiﬁcation, Sangeorzan classiﬁcation, 36 72–74 Mason classiﬁcation, radial Neer classiﬁcation head, 26 knee fractures, McAfee classiﬁcation, periprosthetic, 92–93 thoracolumbar spine proximal humerus, 18–19 fractures, 6 Medial condylar physeal O fractures, 82 Occipital condyle fractures, Metatarophalangeal joint, Anderson and Montisano ﬁrst classiﬁcation, 1 Bowers and Martin Odontoid process fractures, classiﬁcation, 77 Anderson and D’Alonzo Jahss classiﬁcation, 78 classiﬁcation, 2–3 Metatarsal Olecranon, Morrey Bowers and Martin classiﬁcation, 25 classiﬁcation, 77–78 Orthopaedic Trauma dislocation, 78 Association classiﬁcation ﬁfth, Dameron cervical spine injuries, 6 classiﬁcation, 77 cuboid fractures, 74 metatarophalangeal joint, 77–78 P tarsometatarsal joint, 75–77 Patellar fractures, 55–56 Meyers and McKeever descriptive classiﬁcation, 55 classiﬁcation, tibial spine, Saunders classiﬁcation, children, 87 55–56 Midtarsal joint, Main and Pauwels classiﬁcation, Jowell classiﬁcation, femoral neck fractures, 71–72 44 Milch classiﬁcation Pediatric fractures. See condylar fractures, 23 Children, fractures in lateral condylar physeal Pelvis, 37–39 fractures, children, acetabulum, 39 81–82 Tile classiﬁcation, 38–39 102 INDEX Pelvis (cont. All rights reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speciﬁcally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broad- casting, reproduction on microﬁlm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September, 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Product liability: The publisher cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information about dosage and application contained in this book. In every individual case the user must check such information by consulting the relevant literature. Editor: Simon Rallison, Heidelberg Desk editor: Anne Clauss, Heidelberg Production editor: Nadja Kroke, Leipzig Cover design: design&production GmbH, Heidelberg Typesetting: LE-T XJE elonek,Schmidt&VöcklerGbR,Leipzig Printed on acid-free paper SPIN 11533467 27/3150/YL – 5 4 3 2 1 0 Abbreviations IX VMpo Nucleus ventralis medialis, posterior part VPI Nucleus ventralis posterior inferior VPL Nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis VPLc Nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis, caudal part VPLo Nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis, oral part VPM Ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus VR1,VRL1 Vanilloid receptors 1 and L1 VZV Varicella-zoster virus List of Contents 1 tro uc ti o.............................................. Nociception is necessaryforsurvivalandmaintainingtheintegrityoftheorganisminapotentially hostile environment (Hunt and Mantyh 2001; Scholz and Woolf 2002). However, sustained or chronic pain can result in secondary symptoms (anxiety, depression), and in a marked decrease of the quality of life. This spontaneous and exaggerated pain no longer has a protective role, but pain becomes a ruining disease itself (Basbaum 1999; Dworkin and Johnson 1999; Woolf and Mannion 1999; Dworkin et al. If pain becomes the pathology, typically via damage and dysfunction of the peripheral and central nervous system, it is termed "neuropathic pain. The neurons lack dendritic processes and generally lack direct synaptic input to the soma (Feirabend and Marani 2003). Feirabend and Marani (2003) summarized the functional aspects of the dorsal root ganglia: "It appears that the DRG cell bodies are electrically excitable, lack a blood brain barrier and some are able to ﬁre repetitively. The ﬁrst feature may be important for both propagation of impulses along the T junction and feed back regulation of sensory endings. The second aspect suggests a role as chemical sensor and the third property may be responsible for generating background sensation of 2 Functional Neuroanatomy of the Pain System the awareness of the body scheme.
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