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The main absorption mechanism is the photoelectric effect – which varies consider- ably with the atomic number (approximately as Z4) generic wellbutrin 300 mg overnight delivery. In a complex mixture of elements like that found in the organs of a patient trusted 300 mg wellbutrin, the degree of attenuation varies with the average of the atomic number of all the atoms involved generic 300mg wellbutrin amex. If two organs have similar densities and similar average atomic numbers wellbutrin 300mg with amex, it is not possible to distinguish them on a radiograph, because no natural contrast exists. For example, it is not possible to identify blood vessels within an organ, or to demonstrate the internal structure of the kidney, without artifcially altering the electron density and absorption. In the period from 1931 until it was stopped2 2 – 10 million patients worldwide have been treated with Thorotrast. In 1910 barium sulfate was introduced as contrast agent for gastrointestinal diagnosis. In 1924 the frst imaging of the gallbladder, bile duct and blood vessels took place. This tube was superior to other tubes at the time because of; 1) its high vacuum and 2) a heated flament as the source for electrons. He was able to show that a narrow catheter could be advanced from a vein in the arm into the right atrium of the heart, a distance of almost two-thirds of a meter. Obviously, this constituted a remarkable advance – and could be visual- ized by contrast compounds. This opened the way for angiography which al- lowed the routine imaging of blood vessels and the heart. In connection to this “break-through” in medical im- aging we have to mention the forerunner of the tech- nique called “planigraphy”. In 1948 Marius Kolsrud at the University of Oslo pre- sented a master thesis with the title; Godfrey Hounsfeld Allan Cormack Røntgen-skikt-avbildning. Kolsrud made equipment that made it possible to take x-ray pictures of a single plane in the object. Consequently, structures in the focal plane appear sharper, while structures in other planes appear blurred. It is thus possible to select different focal planes which contain the structures of interest. This method was used for chest x-ray pictures in connection with tuberculo- sis for a number of years. This technique uses x-ray fuo- roscopy to guide the compression of plaques and minimize the dangerous constriction of the heart vessels. The signal from the x-ray system is con- verted to a digital picture which can then be enhanced for clearer diagnosis Andreas Gruentzig and stored digitally for future review. The physical basis for an x-ray picture The x-ray picture is a shadow picture of the part of the body that is between the x-ray tube and the flm. Only the x-ray photons that penetrate the object and reach the flm can give a signal or blacken- ing of the flm. To see into the body we must have “something” that can penetrate the body – come out again – and give information. The fgure below is an attempt to illustrate the main points for making an x-ray photo. The two drawings – one vertical and one hor- Incoming x-ray photons izontal – are attempts to illustrate the basic principles for an x-ray photo. Absorber Part of the body Transmitted Electron photons The x-rays is absorbed according to the electron density Incoming photons Detector Scattered flm, fuoeresent screen, etc. The x-ray source On page 8 we described the basic principles for the formation of x-rays – or rather bremstrahlung. When electrons with high energy smash into the “anticathode” – a tiny part of the energy is trans- formed into radiation. This implies that the x-ray photons formed, may have a number of different energies – in fact a whole spectrum is formed (the “Initial spectrum” in the fgure below). X-rays are usually described by their maximum energy, which is determined by the voltage between the electrodes.

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They have shown that stem cell self-renewal is regulated by networks of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors and that the balance between proto-oncogenic and tumor suppressor signals changes with age quality wellbutrin 300 mg. This likely explains why the mutation spectrum changes with age in cancer patients generic wellbutrin 300mg without prescription, as different mechanisms become competent to hyper-activate self-renewal pathways in patients at different ages discount wellbutrin 300mg visa. The Morrison laboratory has further shown that in some cancers many tumor cells are capable of driving disease growth and progression while other cancers are driven by minority subpopulations of cancer cells that adopt “stem cell” characteristics cheap wellbutrin 300 mg on-line. These insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of self-renewal have suggested new approaches for promoting normal tissue regeneration and cancer treatment. Morrison was at the University of Michigan where he Directed their Center for Stem Cell Biology. Morrison moved to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center where he is the founding Director of the new Children’s Research Institute. Morrison has also been active in public policy issues surrounding stem cell research. For example, he has twice testified before Congress and was a leader in the successful “Proposal 2” campaign to protect stem cell research in Michigan’s state constitution. Nichols is a professor of anesthesiology/critical care medicine and pediatrics and the Mary Wallace Stanton Professor of Education. Since joining the School of Medicine faculty in 1984, he has held numerous leadership posts in both the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and school-wide. Nichols oversees undergraduate, graduate, residency, postdoctoral and continuing medical education programs, as well as the Welch Medical Library. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease ͺͻ guidelines; restructure graduate medical education; oversee the design of a new $50 million medical education building; and enhance diversity throughout Johns Hopkins Medicine. Nichols was associate director of the residency education program in the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine. Nichols became a full professor of anesthesiology/critical care medicine and pediatrics in 1998 and became the recipient of the Mary Wallace Stanton Professorship for Education in 2005. He has written more than 80 professional journal articles and abstracts, held 17 guest professorships, headed more than 20 symposia and delivered more than 115 guest lectures. He also has been editor in chief of the leading textbooks in pediatric critical care medicine and edited Rogers Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care and Critical Heart Disease in Infants and Children. Maynard Olson is Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Genome Sciences, at the University of Washington. His research interests focus on studies of natural genetic variation in both bacteria and humans. This research involves activities in human genetics, genomics, molecular genetics, analytical biochemistry, and computational biology. Olson was involved in shaping scientific policy toward the Human Genome Project, serving on the National Research Council Committee on Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome, the Program Advisory Committee of the National Center for Human Genome Research Institute. In recognition of his research in genetics and genomics, he received the Genetics Society of America Medal in 1992, the City of Medicine Award in 2000, the Gairdner International Award in 2002, and the Gruber Prize in Genetics in 2007. Charmaine Royal is an Associate Research Professor in the Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy and the Department of African and African American Studies at Duke University. She subsequently completed her postdoctoral training in the Bioethics and Special Populations Research Program at the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health, and in the Division of Epidemiology and Behavioral Medicine at the Howard University Cancer Center. Royal was Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Director of the GenEthics Unit in the National Human Genome Center at Howard University. She serves on the: Bioethics Advisory Committee of the March of Dimes Foundation; Social Issues Committee of the American Society of Human Genetics; Editorial Board of the American Journal of Bioethics; and various other professional Committees and boards. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 90 ethnicity, and identity. Her specific interests include genetic variation and the (re)conceptualization of race, use of race and ancestry in research and clinical practice, gene- environment interactions in health and health disparities, genetic ancestry inference, involvement of historically marginalized and underrepresented groups in genetic and genomic research, and genomics and global health. She has taught, presented, published, and received funding in these and other related areas.

Recurrent inflammatory disease affecting the heart buy generic wellbutrin 300mg; it Of those who leave hospital alive discount 300 mg wellbutrin free shipping, 15–25% die within the occurs following a streptococcal infection buy wellbutrin 300 mg otc. Incidence 1in100 wellbutrin 300mg line,000 United Kingdom/United States population peryear; incidence has declined over the last 100 years. Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina Definition Age Angina of no obvious provocation not as a direct result First attack usually 5–15 years. Sex Aetiology/pathophysiology M = F Causedbyspasmofacoronaryarterymostoftenwithout atheroma or in association with a mild eccentric lesion. Common in Middle and Far East, South America and Central Africa, declining in the West. Clinical features Pain is usually more severe and more prolonged than Aetiology classical angina occurring at rest particularly in the early Cell-mediated autoimmune reaction following a pha- morning. Risk fac- centre over the trunk and limbs, which appear and tors forstreptococcalinfectionincludepovertyandover- disappear over a matter of hours. Non-specific symptoms include It appears that antistreptococcal antibodies crossre- malaise and loss of appetite. Macroscopy r Pericarditis: Nodules are seen within the pericardium Fibrinous vegetations form on the edges of the valve associated with an inflammatory pericardial effusion. Valve leaflets may fuse r Myocarditis:Nodulesdevelopwithinthemyocardium and scar, particularly affecting the mitral and aortic associated with inflammation. These may result in an acute disturbance thesecellsarereplacedbyhistiocytes,whichmaybemult- of valve function. Complications Clinical features More than 50% of patients with acute rheumatic cardi- There may be a history of pharyngitis in up to 50% of tis will develop chronic rheumatic valve disease 10–20 patients. The diagnosis is made on two or more major years later, particularly mitral and aortic stenosis. These manifestations or one major plus two or more minor may be complicated by atrial fibrillation, heart failure, manifestations (Duckett Jones criteria). A pericardial friction r Cultures of blood and tissues are sterile by the time rubmay be audible due to pericarditis. Management Pathophysiology r Patients with a clinical diagnosis of rheumatic fever Inacutemitralregurgitation,retrogradebloodflowfrom should be treated with benzylpenicillin regardless of the left ventricle into the left atrium causes the left atrial culture results. There is an increase in the pul- r Pain, fever and inflammation are treated with high- monary venous pressure and there may be pulmonary dose aspirin. This allows the r Patients may require treatment for heart failure (see increased volume of atrial blood to be compensated for page 63) and chorea may respond to haloperidol. The left ventricu- r Following recovery patients should receive prophy- lar stroke volume increases due to volume overload and lactic penicillin for at least 5 years after the last at- over time this results in left ventricular hypertrophy. In Although symptomatic improvement occurs with treat- most cases mitral regurgitation is chronic and is asymp- ment, therapy does not appear to prevent subsequent tomatic for many years. On examination the pulse is normal volume, but may be ir- Mitral regurgitation regular due to atrial fibrillation. On aus- Flow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium cultation the first heart sound is soft due to incomplete during systole through an incompetent mitral valve. There may be a prominent third heart sound due to the Aetiology sudden rush of blood back into the dilated left ventricle In developing countries rheumatic disease accounts for in early diastole. In developed countries other causes predomi- Complications nate: Patients develop left ventricular failure due to chronic r Prolapsing mitral valve. Atrial fibrillation is common due r Myocardial infarction may lead to papillary muscle to atrial dilation, with an increased risk of throm- dysfunction or rupture. Other complications include pulmonary r Any disease that causes dilation of the left ventricle, oedema and infective endocarditis. Congestive heart fail- ure may also cause mitral regurgitation due to down- Investigations ward displacement of the papillary muscle. This leads r The chest X-ray shows cardiomegaly due to left atrial to a failure of the valve cusps to meet and regurgita- and left ventricular enlargement. Valve calcification tion ranging in severity according to the degree of left may be seen in cases due to rheumatic fever.

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