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How will WHO support research for universal health coverage? Chapter 5 draws out the dominant themes of the report generic atorlip-20 20mg without prescription, and proposes a set of actions by which the research community order 20 mg atorlip-20 amex, national governments order atorlip-20 20 mg with mastercard, donors buy atorlip-20 20mg without prescription, civil society and international organizations, including WHO, can support the research that is needed if we are to reach universal health coverage. Tis report is closely aligned with the aims of the WHO strategy, which encourages the highest-quality research in order to deliver the greatest health ben- efts to the maximum number of people. Key points ■ The goal of universal health coverage is to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need – prevention, promotion, treatment, rehabilitation and palliation – without risk of financial ruin or impoverishment, now and in the future. This is illustrated by progress towards the health- related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and in the widespread fall in cash payments made for using health services. Thus nearly half of all HIV-infected people eligible for antiretroviral therapy were still not receiving it in 2011; and an estimated 150 million people suffer financial catastrophe each year because they have to pay out-of-pocket for health services. Consequently, given limited resources, each nation must determine its own priorities for improving health, the services that are needed, and the appropriate mechanisms for financial risk protection. First, and most important, are questions about improving health and well-being – questions that help us to define the interventions and services that are needed, including financial risk protection, discover how to expand the coverage of these services, including the reduction of inequities in coverage, and investigate the effects of improved coverage on health. The second set of questions is about measurement – of the indicators and data needed to monitor service coverage, financial risk protection, and health impact. One task for research is to help define a set of common indicators for comparing progress towards universal coverage across all countries. Through the cycle of research – questions yield answers which provoke yet more questions – there will always be new opportunities to improve health. As a descendant of the “Health for All” movement (Box 1. Tese services range from clinical care for individual patients to the public services that protect the health of whole populations. Tey include services that come from both within and beyond the health sector. Financial risk protection is one element in the package of measures that provides overall social protection (7). And protection against severe fnancial difculties in the event of illness gives the peace of mind that is an integral part of well-being. Tese are personal and moral choices regarding the kind of society that people wish to live in, taking universal cov- erage beyond the technicalities of health fnancing, public health and clinical care. With a greater understanding of the scope of universal health coverage, many national governments now view progress towards that goal as a guiding principle for the development of health systems, and for human development generally. It is clear that healthier environments mean healthier people (9). Preventive and curative services protect health and protect incomes (10, 11). Healthy children are better able to learn, and healthy adults are better able to contribute socially and economically. Te path to universal health coverage has been dubbed “the third global health transition”, afer the demographic and epidemiological transitions (12). Universal coverage is now an ambition for all nations at all stages of develop- ment. Te timetable and priorities for action clearly difer between countries, but the higher aim of ensuring that all people can use the health services they need without risk of fnancial hardship is the same everywhere. The Alma Ata Declaration is best known for promoting primary health care as a means to address the main health problems in communities, fostering equitable access to promotive, preventive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative health services. The idea that everyone should have access to the health services they need underpinned a resolution of the 2005 World Health Assembly, which urged Member States “to plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens so as to contribute to meeting the needs of the population for health care and improving its quality, to reducing poverty, and to attaining internationally agreed development goals” (3). The central role of primary care within health systems was reiterated in The world health report 2008 which was devoted to that topic (4). The world health report 2010 on health systems financing built on this heritage by proposing that health financing systems – which countries of all income levels constantly seek to modify and adapt – should be developed with the specific goal of universal health coverage in mind.
Correlations relatives were included buy 20mg atorlip-20 otc, might have led to artifactual infla- between tests of different cognitive functions were weak buy atorlip-20 20 mg low price, tion of risk computations safe 20mg atorlip-20. They did not include parents buy atorlip-20 20mg on line, and the educational analysis also demonstrated that impairment on one test did of the groups was high and equivalent in siblings and con- not predict impairment on another test in the sibling group. The IQ of index cases was 94, for Thus, cognitive dysfunction along several dimensions is fa- their siblings it was 107, and for controls it was 108. The use of cognitive pheno- percentage of siblings carrying the schizophrenic spectrum types may reduce clinical and genetic heterogeneity and im- diagnosis was relatively low—under 5%. In a version of the prove the power of genetic studies of schizophrenia. CPT that had flanking distracters, they found that 50% of patients, 24% of siblings, and 18% of controls performed one standard deviation below the control mean when d′ was used as a dependent measure. The RR for this pheno- NEUROCOGNITIVE DEFICITS AND type was 2. This finding suggested that the cognitive de- FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME IN mands that this test imposes are under genetic control, the SCHIZOPHRENIA alleles that control this type of information process may be overrepresented in some families of schizophrenic patients, By any standard, schizophrenia is a remarkably disabling and that this finding is not redundant with diagnosis. Among young adults in developed countries, it ranks ever, it was not clear whether CPT impairment is a disease- near the top of causes of disability in both men and women modifying variable or a susceptibility trait, given that the (75). There is now increasing support for the idea that key sibling group as a whole did not differ from controls. In aspects of disability, such as reductions in social competence contrast, examination with a test of continuous working and the capacity for independent living and vocational suc- memory (the so-called n-back task, which demands rapid cess, are the result of neurocognitive compromise. Throughout most of as a whole was significantly impaired in comparison with the twentieth century, studies of the neurocognition of normal controls, which suggests that the genetic structure schizophrenia focused rather narrowly on attempts to define that underlies impaired performance may also confer liabil- and characterize the deficits. To assess the suitability of cognitive outcome (50). Starting in the early 1990s, a large number function for use as a phenotype in genetic studies, Egan et of studies examined the associations between rather specific al. They hypothesized that the RR of cognitive dys- phrenia. This being said, individual studies were underpow- function would be moderate and that different subgroups ered with small sample sizes and were mainly atheoretic. A set of instruments measuring these constructs in- lap in either the neurocognitive or the functional outcome cluded IQ, set shifting and working memory, memory, measures. Nonetheless, some conclusions from this litera- speed, and fluency. RR was estimated by using cutoff scores ture can be drawn. The literature generally supports the conclusion that Patients performed markedly worse than controls on all tests neurocognitive deficits are related to functional outcome in except a measure of premorbid intelligence. The entire sib- schizophrenia (42,45), including skill acquisition in psycho- ling group showed impaired performance on the WCST, social rehabilitation programs, laboratory assessments of so- letter fluency, and Trails B. Siblings of patients with im- cial problem-solving ability or analogue measures of instru- paired performance also showed deficits on the CVLT, mental skills, and broader aspects of behavior in community Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and Trails A. When one standard deviation was used as the cutoff, the RR Indeed, using intrapair differences in twins concordant of siblings was elevated on the Trails B (RR, 3. In this design, the experience of illness, institutionalization, medication, psychotic symp- tomatology, and, of course, genome is shared. Although in one sense the design 'stacks the deck' because of its TABLE 48. Neurocognitive constructs and functional out- EXAMINED IN STUDIES OF FUNCTIONAL come. A heavy arrow OUTCOME indicates that at least four studies found a significant relationship between the neurocognitive construct and the outcome domain; Secondary memory Secondary (also called episodic or a thin arrow indicates that significant relationships were uncov- strategic) memory refers to the ered in two or three studies. Typically, this type of memory is assessed with a list of words or artificiality, it does illustrate the importance of neurocogni- passages of text. The amount of tion in predicting level of functioning. This is not to say that information in the words or symptoms do not have an impact on social and vocational passages exceeds the immediate memory span. What is impor- Working or Immediate memoryrefers to the ability tant to note is that cognitive impairment may also contrib- immediate memory to maintain a limited amount of ute in a unique manner to outcome.
Biopsychosocial Model The biopsychosocial model aims to take account of the broad range of influences (biological buy atorlip-20 20 mg on-line, psychological and social – cultural can also be included) which may coalesce in the formation of a disorder purchase atorlip-20 20 mg. Chronic whiplash injury pain following rear-end collisions may be an example purchase 20 mg atorlip-20 otc. Some authorities view the whiplash syndrome as culturally constructed (Trimble generic 20 mg atorlip-20 free shipping, 1981). It is non-existent or almost non-existent in Singapore, Lithuania, Germany and Greece, and among laboratory volunteers and fair-ground bumper car drivers, but common in the USA and Australia (Ferrari and Russell, 1999). In this example, the biological dimension is most probably an acute sprain which resolves/heals without any significant residual structural damage. At least in the majority of cases, no convincing, enduring pathology has been demonstrated using current medical technology. Important psychosocial determinants are present in cultures which provide “overwhelming information” regarding the potential for chronic pain following whiplash injury, medical systems which encourage inactivity and caution, and litigation processes which involve protracted battles with insurance companies. Patients are led to expect, amplify and attribute symptoms in a chronic fashion. Four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ) The 4DSQ is a recent self-report questionnaire (Terluin et al, 2006) which measures “distress, depression, anxiety and somatization”. Few other instruments attempt to quantify somatization. This questionnaire is available free of charge for non- commercial use (EMGO, 2000). The Somatic Symptoms and Related Disorders all have elements of somatization and currently emerge in a cultural setting in which medicalization is a prominent feature. Evidence indicates that cognitive processes are etiologically important. Many of these disorders are associated with information processing deficits. In Somatic symptom disorder – with predominant pain, learning is an etiological mechanism, as demonstrated by the importance of secondary gains and the influence of social models. Fear of pain and movement may be important in the maintenance of some chronic pain. Evidence of the importance of cognition in somatisation continues to grow. Attributional theory advances the reasonable proposition that ambiguous symptoms will be interpreted in accordance with personal beliefs and experience. Medical anthropology emphasizes the importance of the beliefs of the individual and the culture. AIB forms an alternative envelope for these DSM-5 disorders. It is probable that somatization syndromes arise where there is an unmet need for closeness with others (Landa et al, 2012). The evidence for information-processing deficits of those presenting with somatization suggests that information should be presented in an understandable form and repeated frequently. Present at all times as caring, confident, firm and approachable (within agreed limits). After appropriate investigation, inform the patient that no further investigations are indicated, at this time. Investigations are expensive, and when somatization is present, they are unhelpful. If one investigates a somatically healthy individual long enough minor “abnormalities” will eventually be detected, which are not clinically significant, and which are confusing to the clinician and the patient. Also, if one investigates any patient long enough, eventually something will go wrong, a puncture site will become infected, the patient will fall off the X-ray table, a nurse will trip over a lead, there will be an anaphylactic response. Limit the number of number of invasive treatments (for similar reasons to 4). This is the only way to limit the investigations and invasive treatments, and number of explanations provided.
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