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His early education was in the classic automobiles and had recently begun Crenshaw schools venlor 75 mg low price. He weighed his words care- 1915 he took his MD degree at the College of fully and made decisive decisions venlor 75 mg free shipping. Physicians and Surgeons in Baltimore venlor 75 mg otc, which 1 He died of pneumonia on February 27 discount venlor 75mg with amex, 1998, year earlier had been taken over by the Univer- at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He interned from 1915 to 1916 at the Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh and then became the assistant of Dr. A few months after World War I started, he enlisted, and was immediately sent overseas with the Second Orthopedic Unit headed by Dr. Paul was ordered to the Edinburgh War Hospital for training in war surgery, and served under the great Sir Harold Stiles until June 1918, when he joined the American Army in France. Toward the end of June he arrived at Neufchâteau, where be became one of a surgical team that included Dr. The team then became many other original operations included: (1) an attached to Mobile Hospitals No. When he returned home in July femoral neck (1929); (3) a graft between the first 1919, he worked first at Walter Reed Hospital in and second cervical vertebrae for ununited frac- Washington and then at Ford McPherson in tures of the odontoid process (1928); (4) a rota- Atlanta, where he was in charge of the amputa- tion operation for ununited fractures of the carpal tion section. In recognition of his outstanding war scaphoid (1934); (5) an operation for congenital record, he was awarded the Army Silver Star. He was a member of the staff of the cations and also very few end-result studies. Silver in the organization and his own procedures for treating subacromial bur- operation of the D. Watson Home for Crippled sitis by aspiration with a large needle, for ulnar- Children at Leetsdale, outside Pittsburgh. This nerve suture, and for acute suppurative arthritis was opened in 1919 and soon became one of the and gonorrheal arthritis. He wrote the chapter on outstanding crippled children’s hospitals in the “Fractures of the Pelvis, Sacrum and Coccyx” in country. Paul was very active in the state crippled Bancroft and Murray’s Surgical Treatment of the children’s services and at different times held as Motor-Skeletal System (1945). He was a hospitals in Pittsburgh and at the Shriner’s Hos- delightful story teller and had a host of stories, pital in Erie, Pennsylvania, in addition to the D. In 1923, Paul married Anne Laurel McNeill, Paul was vice president of the American who had been an army nurse in World War I, Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons in 1941, serving at one time in Evacuation Hospital No. They were devoted part- also the first president of the Pittsburgh Orthope- ners and had two sons, Paul Jr. Both Paul and David became of Medicine, and a member of the American orthopedic surgeons, and were associated with Orthopedic Association (1941), the Société Inter- their father in practice before he retired to Fort nationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Lauderdale, Florida. Traumatologie (SICOT) (1948), the American College of Surgeons, and the Latin American Society of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology. Paul had a great love for surgery and was always considered an excellent technician. He was best known for two operations: one, a barrel- stave graft for ununited fractures and bone cysts (1927); and the other, removal of the destroyed bone in the femoral head in coxa plana and packing of the cavity with bone chips (1928). The latter operation he performed for many years before it was reported in the literature. In his hands the results seemed to be better than those reported by others. This procedure was very 318 Who’s Who in Orthopedics sity and chief of the orthopedic service at Mercy Hospital in Iowa City. Steindler’s interest spanned the whole field of orthopedic surgery, and he wrote important essays on almost all aspects of the specialty. He adhered to sound biologic principles; he discouraged fads but was always on the lookout for new ideas.

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In 1912 he published his first work on bone Because of his keen interest venlor 75mg with amex, the first state reha- grafting in ununited fractures discount 75 mg venlor fast delivery. It was in this type bilitation commission was established in New of surgery that his tools were most useful and Jersey in 1919 venlor 75mg otc. This was quite different from any in London discount 75mg venlor with visa, at the International Congress of Med- other type that had been done before. It was a V- icine at the Royal National Orthopedic Hospital, shaped fore-and-aft wedge. Albee felt strongly he demonstrated his bone-grafting techniques that, since one could not duplicate in the human with his motor-driven saw. In 1914, 4 months knee the normal gliding mechanism of the 6 Who’s Who in Orthopedics articular bone surfaces, a wedge type of arthro- plasty that provided both mobility and stability was to be preferred. As an interposing membrane in arthroplasties, he always used the facial fat graft advocated by Murphy. Winnett Orr, in Lincoln, NE, Albee became very much interested in osteomyelitis. He was convinced that the reason for the success of the closed plaster method of Orr in the infected com- pound fracture and the old osteomyelitic case was the spontaneous development within the host of a substance that thrived on virulent pathogenic bacteria and completely destroyed them. This substance, in 1921, had been called a “bacteriophage” by D’Herelle, of Yale. Albee was able to show a phage appearing in 94% of 100 cases of acute and chronic osteomyelitis. His Lewis ANDERSON treatment was to clean the infected material out of the wound completely and then inject a bacteri- 1930–1997 ophage solution into osteomyelitic wounds. In 1933 Albee described a rather ingenious Lewis Anderson was born in Greensboro, arthroplasty of the elbow in which, after he had Alabama, on October 13, 1930. He attended reconstructed the joint, he lengthened the olecra- Emory University in Atlanta from 1947 through non with its triceps attached—in some ways a 1949 and received his MD degree from the Uni- comparable operation with his kinesiology lever versity of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia in 1953. Anderson served In 1934 he became greatly interested in low- as an intern at the Hospital of the University of back pain. Myofascitis, he said, was the principal Pennsylvania in 1953 and 1954 and then began a cause. This he described as a low-grade inflam- residency in general surgery at the same institu- matory change in the muscles and the fascia, with tion. His training was interrupted by 2 years of the fascial insertions of the muscle to bone active duty in the United States Naval Medical becoming hypersensitive because of toxic inflam- Corps, during which he served as the senior matory or metabolic changes. His treat- subsequently completed his residency at the ment for this condition was, first, the removal Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. He emphasized colonic received his orthopedic training at the Campbell irrigation and the introduction of Bacillus aci- Clinic in Memphis from 1957 through 1960. Truly, he was an out- ate professor, and, from 1971 to 1977, as Profes- standing personality in the most progressive era sor of Orthopedic Surgery at the University of orthopedic surgery of all time. He once wrote, of Tennessee Center for Health Sciences in “I have never liked looking back. Although the bones did not heal faster with these techniques, he noted that immobility of adjacent joints, joint stiffness, malreduction, and nonunion—all well-known complications of 7 Who’s Who in Orthopedics closed treatment of fractures—often were American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, the avoided and that the overall rate of morbidity and American Orthopedic Association, the American complications was greatly reduced with early Medical Association, the Southern Medical Asso- motion, which could be used in conjunction with ciation, Alpha Omega Alpha, and numerous other rigid internal fixation. Anderson was an American– author of more than 60 articles that were pub- Canadian Exchange Traveling Fellow, along with lished in medical journals and of more than 20 Dr. III, demonstrated tremendous energy and good reported on his pioneering work in a paper enti- nature. He became a leader early in his career and tled “Compression-Plate Fixation in Acute was the model of a true “southern gentleman. Not only did this MD, died at the age of 67 in Mobile, Alabama, change in technology have a dramatic effect on after a brief illness. Anderson was asked to review all three editions of the Manual of Inter- nal Fixation, by the AO Group, for The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery; the reviews appeared in 1971, 1980 and 1992. Anderson became the first Profes- sor and Chairman of the Department of Orthope- dic Surgery at the University of South Alabama in Mobile. In 1989, he was named the Louise Lenoir Locke Distinguished Professor of Ortho- pedics.

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A way of approaching this is outlined in Chapter 8 in the section on self-assessment generic 75 mg venlor otc. Conventional knowledge-based tests cheap venlor 75 mg with visa, such as MCQs cheap venlor 75mg free shipping, should be avoided except perhaps for student self-assessment or progress testing cheap venlor 75 mg. Unfortunately, test methods more suitable for PBL courses are not well developed. The Modified Essay Question may be the simplest and most flexible format if a written test of integrated knowledge is required (see Chapter 8). In many schools the tutor is asked to rate students on their performance with the emphasis being as much on their group and personal learning skills as on their grasp of the content. Few methods have been specifically designed to evaluate problem-based self-directed learning skills. The most well known of these is the Triple Jump Test developed at McMaster University. In the first step the student works through a theoretical problem on a one-to-one basis with a tutor, The student is asked to think aloud as the problem is assessed and learning needs determined. The second step consists of a fixed period of time (2-3 hours) during which the student may seek out relevant information. The final step involves a return to the tutor where the new information is used to re-analyse the problem and hope- fully come to some conclusions. The tutor evaluates the efficiency and effectiveness of the student’s problem- solving and self-directed learning skills. These are compared with the student’s self-assessment of his or her performance. This method has obvious merit as a formativeevaluationbut, as there is littleinformationabout its validity and reliability, so its value for summative purposes has yet to be established. To obtain more information on assessment inPBL courses we suggest you look at the book by Boud and Feletti and the review article by Nendaz and Tekian. You will also find it very helpful to contact PBL schools and see what strategies and methods they are using. Your role will generally be one of facilitator rather then expert, a role you may initially find rather difficult. The sessions will usually be conducted in small groups so Chapter 3 may also be helpful. In brief, your main task is to help your students develop the skills to work effectively as a group member. To do this the student must understand the purpose of their PBL activities and not see the session simply as one of solving the problem. The process skills they will need to do this effectively include group skills, information literacy (locating, retriev- ing, evaluating and using information of all kinds), negotiating, interviewing and presenting. So while you may appear to be teaching your subject less, you should have the pleasure of observing students learn the expected content in a much more interesting and exciting way. For the purpose of this chapter the time allocated to a module will be assumed to be one week. Students are then engaged in formulating questions about the problem (e. To assist the process you should be provided with additional information about the case (physical examination findings; investigations) to feed into the discussion at the initial session or later in the week. You should also have a list of 119 resources which are relevant to the problem such as books, articles, videotapes, web-based materials and experts available for consultation. There might even be a lecture or two for the students to attend, The expected level of tutor intervention will depend to some extent on whether the approach in your school is Guided or Open Discovery. When agreement has been reached on the learning tasks to be performed, arrangements are made to meet again during the week to review progress and pool information. Students will determine whether further information is needed and, if so, additional learning tasks will be assigned. However, complete resolution of the problem is rarely possible nor is it to be seen as the aim. If the institution is using expert tutors it is unlikely that you will spend many sessions with one group of students.

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This skilled operative technique buy cheap venlor 75 mg online, and my reply was that much as I would like to purchase 75 mg venlor fast delivery, I superb organization buy 75 mg venlor overnight delivery, and happy spirit of recovery could not afford it cheap 75mg venlor visa. Nothing more was said, but was applied so generally to all the hospitals of this some weeks later he called for me and said that country that it would be invidious to try to enu- in rewriting his book on orthopedic surgery he merate them. Indeed there was no orthopedic wanted a complete study of the literature on pes center or great teaching hospital that Jones did not cavus and pointed out that this would mean trav- influence. Having done it and presented to 1947, he was nominated to the first orthopedic him the review (which in fact he never wanted— teaching post to be created in France in 1953. Before long it was to become typical of the disarming generosity of Robert a service in orthopedics and traumatology with Jones to young surgeons. Robert Judet was On June 28, 1957, there was a service in the appointed Professor of Orthopedics and Trauma- Cathedral of Liverpool, on the centenary of the tology in 1963. He was a member of many birthday of Robert Jones in 1857, near the foun- national and international orthopedic societies, a dation pillar in which are laid his ashes, the first Corresponding Fellow of the British Orthopedic ever to find a resting place here, above which is Association and a member of the American a stained glass window dedicated to Service. As Orthopedic Association and the American long as the walls of that great Cathedral stand, Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. His first thesis, at the age of 21, was generosity, with kindness and joy of heart. During his career hearts and minds of those who came within the he studied subjects as varied as the repair of warm glow of his presence, and who learned pseudarthroses, pedicle bone grafts, quadriceps humbly to love him, his spirit still lives. With his brother, Jean, he was the first to use an acrylic prosthesis to replace the femoral head in 1946 and presented the results of the first 400 cases at the meeting of the British Orthope- dic Association in 1951. Undaunted by subse- quent failure that resulted from the reaction to the wear of the acrylic material, he continued to work and experiment in this field, developing with his son Thierry a cementless total hip arthroplasty in 1971 and reporting the results of the first 828 cases to the British Orthopedic Association in 1975. It is said that even at the age of 70 he could operate on two hips before breakfast. New approaches and fresh ideas flowed ceaselessly from him: indeed it was said that any assistant who went away on holiday found himself out of date with his chief’s current thoughts by the time he returned. The yearly orthopedic 1909–1980 courses that he instituted at Garches became famous throughout France and abroad. He was an Born in Paris in 1909, the son of an orthopedic impeccable operator. His knowledge, ability and surgeon, Henri Judet, Robert studied as a medical manner inspired confidence in his patients. As a man, he was the epitome of he worked in general surgery but soon, under the Gallic qualities—charming, generous, entertain- influence of his father and his elder brother, Jean, ing, discerning and the perfect French host. His he came to work exclusively in orthopedic exploits in the Second World War and in the surgery. Appointed Chirurgien des Hôpitaux in Resistance (he was arrested by the Gestapo but 167 Who’s Who in Orthopedics fortunately was freed for lack of proof of his clan- Eventually his work was recognized, and he destine activities) earned him numerous decora- became attending orthopedic surgeon and ulti- tions, including the Chevalier and Officier de la mately chief of the Department of Hand Surgery Légion d’Honneur. American Board of Orthopedic Surgery in 1936, and subsequently served as examiner of the board for a number of years. He was a fellow of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons and was further honored by election to the American Orthopedic Association and the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Kaplan’s scholarly pursuits, which resulted cumulatively in more than 100 major medical papers and four seminal books, were based on detailed human anatomical investigations, com- parative anatomical dissections and studies, and his passion for language. His creative human anatomical pursuits were conducted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, where he was clinical associate pro- fessor of anatomy until his mandatory retirement in 1963. His comparative anatomical studies were conducted at the New York Zoological Gardens (the Bronx Zoo) and at the American Museum of Natural History. As a result of these studies, he published many classic scientific papers, which even today remain a font for the contemporary Emanuel B. His lifelong love of language was 1894–1980 reflected in his writing, teaching, and conversa- tion. In 1949 he translated Duchenne’s Physiol- Born on April 25, 1894, in Krementshoug in the ogy of Motion from the French, making this Ukraine, Emanuel Kaplan completed his under- pioneering study of muscle physiology available graduate studies at the University of Montepellier, to an international readership for the first time and France, and received his medical education in consequently stimulating the study of precise Paris and at Kharkov Imperial University be- muscle function.

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