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In patients who do require chronic treatment generic 10mg glucotrol xl, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought order glucotrol xl 10 mg line. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically glucotrol xl 10 mg for sale. If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on olanzapine generic 10 mg glucotrol xl, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with olanzapine despite the presence of the syndrome. For specific information about the warnings of lithium or valproate, refer to the WARNINGS section of the package inserts for these other products. Hemodynamic Effects -- Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, and in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose-titration period, probably reflecting its (alpha) 1 -adrenergic antagonistic properties. Hypotension, bradycardia with or without hypotension, tachycardia, and syncope were also reported during the clinical trials with intramuscular olanzapine for injection. In an open-label clinical pharmacology study in non-agitated patients with schizophrenia in which the safety and tolerability of intramuscular olanzapine were evaluated under a maximal dosing regimen (three 10 mg doses administered 4 hours apart), approximately one-third of these patients experienced a significant orthostatic decrease in systolic blood pressure (i. Three normal volunteers in phase 1 studies with intramuscular olanzapine experienced hypotension, bradycardia, and sinus pauses of up to 6 seconds that spontaneously resolved (in 2 cases the events occurred on intramuscular olanzapine, and in 1 case, on oral olanzapine). The risk for this sequence of hypotension, bradycardia, and sinus pause may be greater in nonpsychiatric patients compared to psychiatric patients who are possibly more adapted to certain effects of psychotropic drugs. For oral olanzapine therapy, the risk of orthostatic hypotension and syncope may be minimized by initiating therapy with 5 mg QD ( see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). A more gradual titration to the target dose should be considered if hypotension occurs. For intramuscular olanzapine for injection therapy, patients should remain recumbent if drowsy or dizzy after injection until examination has indicated that they are not experiencing postural hypotension, bradycardia, and/or hypoventilation. Olanzapine should be used with particular caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemia, heart failure, or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, and conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications) where the occurrence of syncope, or hypotension and/or bradycardia might put the patient at increased medical risk. Caution is necessary in patients who receive treatment with other drugs having effects that can induce hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory or central nervous system depression ( see Drug Interactions ). Concomitant administration of intramuscular olanzapine and parenteral benzodiazepine has not been studied and is therefore not recommended. If use of intramuscular olanzapine in combination with parenteral benzodiazepines is considered, careful evaluation of clinical status for excessive sedation and cardiorespiratory depression is recommended. Seizures -- During premarketing testing, seizures occurred in 0. There were confounding factors that may have contributed to the occurrence of seizures in many of these cases. Olanzapine should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older. Hyperprolactinemia -- As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D 2 receptors, olanzapine elevates prolactin levels, and a modest elevation persists during chronic administration. Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with previously detected breast cancer of this type. Although disturbances such as galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported with prolactin-elevating compounds, the clinical significance of elevated serum prolactin levels is unknown for most patients. As is common with compounds which increase prolactin release, an increase in mammary gland neoplasia was observed in the olanzapine carcinogenicity studies conducted in mice and rats ( see Carcinogenesis ). However, neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies have shown an association between chronic administration of this class of drugs and tumorigenesis in humans; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive. Transaminase Elevations -- In placebo-controlled studies, clinically significant ALT (SGPT) elevations (>/=3 times the upper limit of the normal range) were observed in 2% (6/243) of patients exposed to olanzapine compared to none (0/115) of the placebo patients. In two of these patients, liver enzymes decreased toward normal despite continued treatment and in two others, enzymes decreased upon discontinuation of olanzapine. In the remaining two patients, one, seropositive for hepatitis C, had persistent enzyme elevation for four months after discontinuation, and the other had insufficient follow-up to determine if enzymes normalized.
In some families buy glucotrol xl 10mg with mastercard, major depression also seems to occur generation after generation purchase glucotrol xl 10 mg amex. However buy 10mg glucotrol xl otc, it can also occur in people who have no family history of depression buy generic glucotrol xl 10mg on line. Whether inherited or not, major depressive disorder is often associated with changes in brain structures or brain function. People who have low self-esteem, who consistently view themselves and the world with pessimism or who are readily overwhelmed by stress, are prone to depression. Whether this represents a psychological predisposition or an early form of the illness is not clear. In recent years, researchers have shown that physical changes in the body can be accompanied by mental changes as well. Also, a serious loss, difficult relationship, financial problem, or any stressful (unwelcome or even desired) change in life patterns can trigger a depressive episode. Very often, a combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors is involved in the onset of a depressive disorder. Later episodes of illness typically are precipitated by only mild stresses, or none at all. Women experience depression about twice as often as men. Many hormonal factors may contribute to the increased rate of depression in women particularly such factors as menstrual cycle changes, pregnancy, miscarriage, postpartum period, pre-menopause, and menopause. Many women also face additional stresses such as responsibilities both at work and home, single parenthood, and caring for children and for aging parents. A recent NIMH study showed that in the case of severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS), women with a preexisting vulnerability to PMS experienced relief from mood and physical symptoms when their sex hormones were suppressed. Shortly after the hormones were re-introduced, they again developed symptoms of PMS. Women without a history of PMS reported no effects of the hormonal manipulation. Many women are also particularly vulnerable after the birth of a baby. The hormonal and physical changes, as well as the added responsibility of a new life, can be factors that lead to postpartum depression in some women. While transient "blues" are common in new mothers, a full-blown depressive episode is not a normal occurrence and requires active intervention. Although men are less likely to suffer from depression than women, 6 million men in the United States are affected by the illness. Men are less likely to admit to depression, and doctors are less likely to suspect it. The rate of suicide in men is four times that of women, though more women attempt it. Depression can also affect the physical health in men differently from women. A new study shows that, although depression is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in both men and women, only men suffer a high death rate. Depression typically shows up in men not as feeling hopeless and helpless, but as being irritable, angry, and discouraged; hence, depression may be difficult to recognize as such in men. Even if a man realizes that he is depressed, he may be less willing than a woman to seek help. Encouragement and support from concerned family members can make a difference. In the workplace, employee assistance professionals or worksite mental health programs can be of assistance in helping men understand and accept depression as a real illness that needs treatment. Some people have the mistaken idea that it is normal for the elderly to feel depressed. On the contrary, most older people feel satisfied with their lives.
When shyness glucotrol xl 10mg sale, unfounded fear of rejection order glucotrol xl 10 mg with visa, hypersensitivity to criticism purchase glucotrol xl 10 mg line, and a pattern of social avoidance persist and intensify through adolescence and young adulthood discount glucotrol xl 10 mg fast delivery, a diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder is often indicated. Many persons diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder have had painful early experiences of chronic parental criticism and rejection. The need to bond with the rejecting parents makes the avoidant person hungry for relationships but their longing gradually develops into a defensive shell of self-protection against repeated parental criticisms. Individuals with a disfiguring condition or illness may overlap with those with this disorder. This disorder is fairly uncommon and there is little information about occurrence by gender or about family pattern. Many individuals exhibit some avoidant behaviors at one point or another in their lives. Occasional feelings of self-doubt and fear in new and unfamiliar social or personal relationships are not unusual, nor are they unhealthy, as these situations may trigger feelings of inadequacy and the wish to hide from social contact in even the most self-confident individuals. An example would be the anxious hesitancy of a new immigrant in a country with a different language and strange customs. Avoidant characteristics are regarded as meeting the diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder only when they:begin to have a long-term negative impact on the affected personlead to functional impairment by significantly altering occupational choice or lifestyle or otherwise impacting quality of lifeand cause significant emotional distressAvoidant personality disorder can occur in conjunction with other social phobias, mood and anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. The diagnosis may be complicated by the fact that avoidant personality disorder may be either the cause or result of other mood and anxiety disorders. For example, individuals who suffer from major depressive disorder may begin to withdraw from social situations and experience feelings of worthlessness, symptoms that are also prominent features of avoidant personality disorder. On the other hand, the insecurity and isolation that are symptoms of avoidant personality disorder can trigger feelings of depression. The characteristics of avoidant personality disorder may resemble those found in both schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders. Persons with any of these disorders are prone to social isolation. Those diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder, however, differ from those with schizoid or schizotypal disorder, because they want to have relationships with others but are prevented by their social inadequacies. Persons diagnosed with schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders, on the other hand, usually prefer social isolation. Personality disorders are usually diagnosed following a complete medical history and an interview with the patient. For example, people with disorders of the digestive tract may avoid social occasions for fear of a sudden attack of diarrhea or the need to vomit. If the interview with the patient suggests a diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder, the doctor may administer a diagnostic questionnaire or another type of assessment tool. Assessment tools helpful in diagnosing avoidant personality disorder include:Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI-2)Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II)Rorschach Psychodiagnostic TestThematic Apperception Test(TAT)A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection Avoidant Personality Disorderis unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being likedshows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculedis preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situationsis inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacyviews self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to othersis unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassingAnxious/Fearful/Dependent PersonalityIt is now believed that Avoidant Personality Disorder patients are excellent candidates for treatment (as opposed to some of the other personality disorders - this is probably due to the healthy desire and longing for close relationships). Unlike the other personality disorders in which denial, minimization, and externalization bring an illusory comfort and sense of personal justification, individuals with AvPD may well be motivated to seek change because the dynamics of their personality disorder are genuinely difficult to tolerate. They will frequently describe social and occupational problems; they will rarely have been able to develop a social network that is strong enough to help them through personal crises (DSM-IV, 1994, p. AvPDs may enter treatment via the criminal justice system or through self-referral. If they come in on their own, they are likely to be so apprehensive that any difficulty in the intake process will precipitate withdrawal. They will respond to kindness and positive regard but any indication of irritability or annoyance on the part of reception or intake personnel may prove intolerable. In mental health settings, these individuals may be drug-seeking if they have discovered the comfort that can be obtained through chemicals. Unfortunately, their pain is so apparent that many psychiatrists are more inclined to prescribe benzodiazepines for these individuals than people with any of the other personality disorders.
Before an individual becomes overwhelmed order glucotrol xl 10 mg otc, decide ahead of time when the need for another arrangement will be required such as transfer to a nursing home or hospice facility order 10 mg glucotrol xl otc. Plan for unexpected expenses to arise from a variety of sources discount glucotrol xl 10 mg free shipping. When caregivers begin feeling frustrated glucotrol xl 10 mg low price, anxious, or depressed note these as warning signs that the situation must be promptly addressed and responsibilities reduced. No one individual should assume the caregiver role without some form of backup, even for a short period of time. Michele is the author of ten books for women and has published over 1200 articles, reviews, and curriculum to more than 100 different publications. Her articles and reviews have been published in Good Housekeeping, Redbook, Christianity Today, Focus on the Family and many other publications. Discontinuing mood stabilizers during pregnancy leads many bipolar women to relapse. Some mood stabilizers are toxic to the baby, but others are relatively safe. Bipolar disorder is a chronic relapsing illness with a deteriorating course over time, particularly if there have been multiple episodes. This creates a bind for women in their reproductive years because stopping the medication increases their relapse risk. Complicating the matter is the trend away from treatment with lithium and divalproex sodium (Depakote), toward newer anticonvulsants and atypical antipsychotics. We know more about the reproductive safety of lithium and divalproex sodium, even though both are teratogenic. But data on newer antimanic drugs are sparse, putting the clinician between a teratologic rock and a clinical hard place. Within 3 months, half of the 50 women had relapsed, and by 6 months about 70% had relapsed. This supports the findings of our earlier study, a chart review, which found a high relapse rate among women who had stopped taking lithium during pregnancy. Lithium is clearly safer during pregnancy than divalproex sodium (Depakote). Divalproex sodium, which is increasingly used as first-line therapy, is about 100 times more teratogenic than lithium, with a 5% risk for neural tube defects among children exposed to this anticonvulsant during the first 12 weeks of gestation. This makes it a less-than-ideal choice for women during the childbearing years. The anticonvulsants that are being used increasingly are topiramate (Topamax), gabapentin (Neurontin), and lamotrigine (Lamictal). These drugs are sometimes used as monotherapy and often as adjunctive therapy, raising concerns because there are almost no reproductive safety data on these agents. There are no human studies of topiramate and gabapentin. The manufacturer of lamotrigine has a pregnancy registry, and preliminary data do not suggest that risk of malformations is increased when this drug is used as monotherapy, but it is too early to reach conclusions. Atypical antipsychotics are being used as adjuncts to mood stabilizers and as monotherapy: risperidone (Risperdal), olanzapine (Zyprexa), quetiapine (Seroquel), and ziprasidone (Geodon). We are getting more and more calls with questions about the use of these drugs during pregnancy, and obstetricians should expect to see more women on these as well as the newer anticonvulsants. The manufacturer of olanzapine has data on a small number of pregnancy exposures, but with fewer than 100 cases, no safety estimates can be made. The atypicals often cause weight gain, and maternal adiposity may increase the risk for neural tube defects. This was noted in a recent study of patients with schizophrenia taking atypical or typical antipsychotics by Dr. Gideon Koren and his associates at the University of Toronto. More than half of the female patients were overweight, and intake of folate was poor. The investigators concluded that women who take atypical antipsychotics are therefore at a greater risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect (Am.
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