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Therefore generic betoptic 5ml amex, the variance of the cold spot is simply given by subtraction of the variance for the small source disc Re from the one for the large source disc Ra generic 5 ml betoptic with visa. I (b) as a function of the object radius Rafor several Re/Ra ratios with an attenuation coefficient of ¡i = 0 buy betoptic 5ml lowest price. This is because the average number of counts per unit area of activity increases near the centre as the radius of the cold spot decreases purchase betoptic 5 ml. This fact results in relative noise at the centre being more than at the periphery. From Figs 7 and 8, it can be seen that for the distances from the centre until Re, the noise variance curve is nearly flat. As a result, it is suggested that the image noise property in such a brain study is comparatively uniform owing to the annular activity distribution. At first the attenuation discs with a hot spot centre and with a cold area surround geometry were investigated. It was suggested that the larger diameter of the source disc causes noise amplification, and that the larger diameter of the attenuation disc results in a decrease in the noise magnitude, and the noise property for the large attenuation disc is close to the case for the non-attenuating object with a disc source. Next, the attenuation discs with a cold spot centre and with a hot area surround geometry were investigated. It was found that by increasing the cold spot size the noise decreased near the centre due to the higher concentration of counts in the peripheral region. In the hot area surround, that is outside the cold spot region, the noise ini­ tially increased but then decreased with increasing distance from the centre. These approximate formulas for image noise are useful in evaluating the noise properties in more complicated distributions of activity and attenuation. We also determined that the image noise with a non-attenuation disc is expressed by the hypergeometric functions. The stages in the development of a small diameter positron emission tomograph for the study of small animals are described. Initial experiments were performed with a pair of com­ mercial, 4 mm multicrystal detectors at an inter-detector separation of 100 mm. The system’s performance in this geometry was evaluated using physical and biological studies. These indi­ cated the feasibility of using such detectors at this separation to delineate regional tracer kinetic information from small experimental animals. A small diameter, septa-less tomograph incorporating the detectors was simulated and biological data acquired which indicated the benefits of tomography compared with planar studies for imaging small animals. A tomograph incorporating 16 of the latest generation of block detector (3 mm crystals) in a ring diameter of 115 mm was constructed. The detectors were mounted on a 1 m2 vertical gantry and the system incorporated commercial hardware and software for data acquisition. The physical performance of the tomograph indicated that the spatial resolutions expected from the crystal size could be achieved at the centre of the field of view for all axes. However, the small diameter of the system resulted in large degradation of the spatial resolution off-axis due to non-uniformity of detector sampling and photon penetration into neighbouring crystals. These in vivo studies would com­ plement and greatly reduce the number of ex vivo procedures which are currently utilized in the evaluation of putative positron emitting tracers for clinical use [2, 3]. A dedicated tomographic system with a diameter smaller than clinical scanners and with detectors of. The scanner also allows concomitant human and animal studies to be performed, making additional use of expensive radiochemi­ cal syntheses. This paper describes the development of a small diameter positron emission tomograph for small animal studies incorporating the latest generation of commer­ cial, high resolution multicrystal scintillation detectors. The work involved design and feasibility studies right through to the actual construction and performance evaluation of the system. Description and physical measurements Initial experiments were performed on a dual block detector system operated at an inter-detector separation of 100 mm (Fig. Dual block detector system, showing the two multicrystal block detectors on a sliding platform which allow detector separations.

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