By V. Carlos. Salisbury State University. 2018.
At the whole-body level purchase clonidine 0.1mg with mastercard, annotations of the whole-body template indicate the existence of medical data related to a particular area of the body purchase clonidine 0.1mg visa. Also visible at the whole-body level are the medical disciplines that have been used by the patient buy clonidine 0.1 mg fast delivery. In the foreground are disciplines that are associated with the whole body discount clonidine 0.1mg free shipping, for example, general practitioner (GP). Behind these are the speciality disciplines, for example, cardiology and neurol- ogy; and even farther behind are medical record summaries related to regions of the body. By using the zooming capabilities of the Web browser, a practi- tioner can examine which specialities have been applied to the patient and even the extent of the examinations. All the named disciplines are hyperlinks to the related medical information systems. At the atlas and organ levels, general and specialized disciplines related to the region of the body can also be seen. Each of the body templates is in VRML format and is constructed from the Visible Human Dataset. Therefore, by following either hypergraphical or hypertextual links to the medical informa- tion system, the data of the patient can be accessed as shown in Figure 3. To make the virtual medical worlds as general as possible, the following types of general procedures, actions, entities, and data were identi®ed: exami- nation, examination method, speci®c ®nding, parameter, diagnosis, and ther- apy. Examination was de®ned as a collection of actions by some examination methods selected by a physician. Examination method is a collection of actions performed to collect some medical parameters. An exami- nation method can include examination submethods and/or speci®c ®ndings. Speci®c ®nding is a collection of medical parameters that have something in common. Medical parameters represent information about the medical condi- tion of some part of the human body. A parameter can be a numerical value; text; image(s); audio signal; video; a 3-D, 4-D, or VR model; or some other form of information. Each instance of examination, examination method, speci®c ®nding, param- eter, diagnosi, or therapy is de®ned as a personal medical resource (PMR). A physician should have an opportunity to reach data related to any PMR of any patient existing in any medical database throughout the world. Thus each PMR has a corresponding personal medical resource locator (PMRL) to make that task possible (73). This locator makes it possible to reach the PMR from any 82 VIRTUAL REALITY AND ITS INTEGRATION INTO A TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Figure 3. PMR are stored in personal medical resource databases, and the basic rule is that the PMR is stored in the database of the hospital where it was generated. With a PMRL, there is the potential to reach a PMR throughout the medical world on the Internet. This collection is actually a personal medical resource locator database that (conceptually) exists only on the personal home page site. The crucial point is how to generate Web pages with mutually related PMR(s), what descriptions to put on those pages, and how to make sur®ng through Web pages a process in which the physician could easily reach all log- ically related PMR(s). This information should be incorporated in a personal medical resource description database. As the representation of expert knowledge through the database is improved, the Web pages and sur®ng options will change; but these modi®cation need not to be done simultaneously throughout the network. Obviously, new versions of the databases could be easily distributed through the Internet. The transmission of these data over the network becomes critical when consid- 84 VIRTUAL REALITY AND ITS INTEGRATION INTO A TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Figure 3. For the purposes of this chapter, compression relates to storing the medical data and minimizing the required space, whereas transmission relates to minimizing the time the practitioner has to wait to view the medical data. Of course, if the data to be transmitted are compressed, the amount of information transmitted is reduced, which saves time.
One of the early dividends of this work Single gene defects have now also been shown to increase was the establishment of a group of genetic mutations maximum life span in fruit ﬂies buy 0.1 mg clonidine with amex,70 generic 0.1mg clonidine otc,71 yeast purchase clonidine 0.1 mg amex,72 0.1mg clonidine free shipping,73 and mice. Subsequent to the discovery of age-1, including insulin78 and may also enhance oxidative however, other single genes were discovered that also damage,76 also extends maximum life span in mice. Mobbs p66Shc had no apparent effect on fertility or other func- studying other aspects of biology. The speciﬁc examples tions,76 suggesting that increased life span need not entail presented in this brief review are by no means exhaus- reduced functionality in adulthood. For example, a gene for Werner’s syndrome, a prog- it appears that in mammals as well activity of an insulin- erioid syndrome in humans, has recently been cloned, and like pathway (possibly by enhancing oxidative damage) has proved to be a gene involved in DNA replication. In Drosophila, ablation of to command considerable respect, there is also reason to two genes is also known to enhance life span. The ﬁrst, be optimistic that more powerful simple mechanisms may termed methuselah, appears to code for a G-coupled be elucidated in the near future. The second, termed indy, appears References to code for a dicarboxylate cotransporter. The Gompertz function: distinguishing mathe- increase in life span may be obtained with direct inter- matical from biological limitations. MacArthur Foundation Series on is that its activity is enhanced by the allosteric binding of Mental Health and Development. The free radical theory of aging with dietary restriction, reduction in glucose concentra- matures. These data suggest, consistent with results from cation hypothesis of aging from the food-restricted rodent other organisms, that metabolic activity does indeed drive model. Neurotoxic effects of estrogen, glucose, and is not entropic effects of free radical damage, but the glucocorticoids: neurohumoral hysteresis and its path- regulation of cellular processes by glucose metabolites (in ological consequences during aging. Effect of age and caloric intake on protein oxidation in different brain regions and on behavioral functions of the mouse. Mechanism of aging of rat muscle Although senescence is undoubtedly a complex phe- glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase studied byse- nomenon, and there are sound reasons grounded in evo- lective enzyme-oxidation. Oxidative damage nevertheless much progress has been made using the and mitochondrial decay in aging. Epidemiology versus gentics in Parkinson’s of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-guanine. Life and death of neurons in the sion of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Drosophila aging brain. Glau- synergistic effects of glucose deﬁcit, oxidative stress and coma in food-restricted and ad libitum-fed DBA/2NNia advanced glycation endproducts. Rogers MA, Hagberg JM, Martin WHd, Ehsani AA, cataract and the effect of caloric restriction on its develop- Holloszy JO. Christau B, Kromann H, Christy M, Andersen OO, Nerup dence from the 1982, 1984, and 1989 National Long Term J. IRS-1 is a insulin receptor-like gene that regulates longevity and dia- common element in insulin and insulin-like growth factor-l pause in Caenorhabditis elegans [see comments]. Taffett Aging, from maturity to senescence, results in an appar- physiologic deviation from normal using the APACHE ent depletion of physiologic reserves that has been severity of illness scales. This term suggests a narrowing of points are generated by increased deviation from home- homeostatic reserve mechanisms. Homeostenosis leads ostatic values for 12 variables, including vital signs, to the increased vulnerability to disease that occurs with oxygenation, pH, electrolytes, hematocrit, white count, aging. A normal person at homeostasis will have are those that occur as a result of the passage of time and a zero score. A greater departure from homeostasis is are independent of disease state, although there may be measured by a greater point total. The younger group (mean age, 59 usually evident by the fourth or ﬁfth decade and are years) had signiﬁcantly higher (by 20%) acute physio- gradual and inexorable. Overall, primary aging changes logic assessment scores than the older group (mean age, result in little change in function when the older individ- 75).
Select a pain assessment method and teach the patient how to use it Inform patients of the importance of pain prevention The least invasive route of drug administration should Provide patient with suggestions and training for non–drug pain be used 0.1mg clonidine amex. Some drugs can be administered from a variety management activities such as breathing and relaxation techniques of routes purchase 0.1mg clonidine amex, such as subcutaneous purchase 0.1 mg clonidine with visa, intravenous clonidine 0.1mg on line, transcuta- neous, sublingual, and rectal. Most drugs are limited to Source: Adapted from Acute Pain Management Guideline Panel. Quick Guide only a few safe routes of administration, but new deliv- for Clinicians. Department of is preferable because of its convenience and relatively Health and Human Services; 1995. Signiﬁcant effects are often seen 30 min to 2 h after an oral dose, which may be a drawback in acute, rapidly ﬂuctuating pain. It is important to consider that chronic pain man- bolus provides the most rapid onset and shortest dura- agement is often a labor-intensive effort. Not unlike the tion of action, which may require substantial labor, effort required during warfarin anticoagulation, pain technical skill, and monitoring. Subcutaneous and intra- management requires frequent monitoring and adjust- muscular injection, although commonly used, has disad- ments. Indeed, elderly patients with chronic pain beneﬁt vantages of wider ﬂuctuations in absorption and rapid particularly from physicians, nurses, and restorative falloff of action compared to oral routes. Transcutaneous, personnel who are able to employ an interdisciplinary rectal, and sublingual routes are also more difﬁcult to approach to complex problems. Fast-onset, expectation of pain relief, but it unrealistic to suggest or short-acting analgesic drugs should be used for episodic sustain an expectation of complete relief for some pain. In times a period of trial and error should be anticipated these situations, a steady-state analgesic blood level is when new medications are initiated and titration occurs. Long-acting or Review of medications, doses, use patterns, efﬁcacy, and sustained-release preparations should only be used for adverse effects should be a regular process of care. Most patients with continuous pain also fective drugs should be tapered and discontinued. Economic issues are also important in the management Breakthrough pain includes (1) end-of-dose failure as the of chronic pain. It is appropriate to consider economic result of decreased blood levels of analgesic with con- issues and make balanced decisions while basic principles comitant increase in pain before the next scheduled dose; of assessment and treatment are followed. Health care (2) incident pain, usually caused by activity that can be professionals should be aware of the costs and economic anticipated and pretreated; and (3) spontaneous pain, barriers patients and families may encounter with the common with neuropathic pain that is often ﬂeeting and 7 strategies often prescribed. Medicare reimbursement, limited formularies, delays in The use of placebos is unethical in clinical practice, and referrals in some managed care environments, delays there is no place for their use in the management of acute from mail-order pharmacies, and limited availability of or chronic pain. In research, placebos help identify and Any patient who has pain that impairs functional status measure random or uncontrollable events that may 45 or quality of life is a candidate for analgesic drug confound results of some research designs. As with all pharmacotherapy, all analgesic diagnostic of pain or indicative of a therapeutic response. Ferrell eventually learn the truth, resulting in loss of patient trust Nonspeciﬁc inhibitors of COX enzymes (most older and more needless suffering. NSAIDs) are still appropriate for short-term use in inﬂammatory arthritic conditions such as gout, calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy, acute ﬂare-ups of rheuma- Acetaminophen toid arthritis, and other inﬂammatory rheumatic condi- Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for elderly persons tions. They have also been reported to relieve the pain of with mild to moderate pain, especially that of osteoarthri- headache, menstrual cramps, and other mild to moderate tis and other musculoskeletal problems. These drugs can be used alone for mild and antipyretic, acetaminophen acts in the central to moderate pain or in combination with opioids for more nervous system to reduce pain perception. They have the advantage of being nonhabit lack of anti-inﬂammatory activity, studies have shown forming. Individual drugs in this class vary widely with that acetaminophen is as effective as ibuprofen for respect to anti-inﬂammatory activity, potency, analgesic chronic osteoarthritis of the knee. Unfortunately, acetaminophen there is no evidence to support a particular compound overdose can result in irreversible hepatic necrosis. Several are available over the Therefore, the maximum daily dose should never exceed counter without a prescription. The concomitant use of meso- are potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, which prostol, high-dose histamine-2 receptor antagonists, and have effects on inﬂammation, pain receptors, and nerve proton pump inhibitors is only partially successful at conduction and may have central effects as well. For those with multi- renal blood ﬂow, hepatic blood ﬂow, and platelet aggre- ple medical problems, NSAIDs are associated with gation.
The system mentioned by Krumm-Heller consists in exciting the sexual apparatus without actually spilling the semen purchase clonidine 0.1mg fast delivery. A spermatozoon can easily escape from the organ- ism without any need to disburse the hundred million spermatozoa that are lost in a seminal ejaculation clonidine 0.1mg free shipping. The reference to a recognized figure from traditional medicine is used to cloud the issues and to create the sense of an amalgam between Brown-Séquard (the recognized medical reference) and Krumm-Heller (a cult refer- ence) order clonidine 0.1mg on-line. Ageac rewrites physiology and pathology order clonidine 0.1mg mastercard, mixing together precise data (when it comes to anatomy, for example) with wild imaginings. Samaël Aun W eor lends an air of probability to his remarks by strewing them with authentic elements. Moreover, he magnifies their importance by presenting himself as the holder of secrets that were communicated to him either by his initiators or through a long secret tradition. Thus he weaves in contributions that include the Egyptian (the god Thot), Aztec (Quetzalcoatl), Indian (the theory of chakras), spiritist (etheric body, astral body) and numerous references intended to waylay the listener by inundating him under a wave of disparate and hard-to-verify sources. After all these theoretical components have been run through the blender, the message delivered — combining elements of reality, his- torical references, and personal delusion — is sufficiently complex to defy analysis. Thus, little by little, physiological reality is reinterpreted and becomes a sign of sorcery or proof of occult powers. Cabbalists know that five is the number of Geburah, 162 Medicine and Cults Rigor, the Law. From this perspective, it is not certainly wrong to affirm that we have a crucified Christ in the liver. The liver has five admirable lobes, five groups of harmonic conduits, five marvelous blood canals and five fundamental functions. This num- ber five, on which the liver is based, reminds us of the Law, Nemesis, that influences all these actions born of desire and of everything wicked. On the bronze liver discovered in the ruins of Piacenza, in Italy, in- scriptions are engraved representing the twelve signs of the zodiac. It is said that ancient astrologers foretold the future by examining the liver of an animal. They looked at the liver and on the basis of what they ob- served, they gave their prophecies. The entire zodiac of man-the-microcosm has its own laws and signs engraved in 5 the liver. Using interpretations like this, the conduct of the group’s mem- bers can be influenced, and they can be led to accept rules of living that are based on an interpretation of their health. Thus, the concept of karma encourages a fatal and morbid acceptance of disease in cult fol- lowers. Cer- tain diseases are presented as incurable: they are supposed to be the karmic result of grave errors made in an earlier life. Since disease is an expression of a fault or of one’s destiny, medi- cine is of no use. Only prayer or subservience to the law of the Master can give access to healing, and as corollaries this comes with the loss of one’s own identity and the practice of tantric yoga. Buddha, Jesus, Moses and others suffered great bitterness to deliver humanity from the disastrous after-effects of the Kundartiguator or- gan. The holy commission made up of ineffable beings took upon 163 Healing or Stealing? Hearken unto me, Brother Gnostics: under- stand that it is only with the three factors of the revolution of the conscience that you can be done with the harmful consequences of the Kundartiguator organ. These three factors are: the death of psy- chological ego, the birth of the Being within us, and the sacrifice for humanity. The schools that teach the ejaculation of semen, even if they do it in a very mystical way, are, in reality, black, because with this practice the Kundartiguator organ develops. The schools that teach the Lingam-Yoni connection without ejacula- tion of the semen are white, for thus Kundalini goes up into the me- dullary canal. The schools that teach the strengthening of the psychological ego are black, for the disastrous consequences of the Kundartiguator organ are thus reinforced.
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