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About twenty symptoms account for most of the reasons people go to health professionals. They also visit health pro- fessionals to learn whether their symptoms indicate an increased risk for serious problems. The most common group of symptoms is caused when a “bug” (bac- teria or virus) has invaded the body. The typical symptoms of a “bug” are cough, fever, chills, runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, earache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Immu- nizations are given to young children to help speed up this process and eliminate the problems caused when these bugs are able to invade the body. Low back, knee, leg, foot, hand, neck, and shoul- der pains are most often caused by “wear and tear. After these two groupings, there a number of common symptoms with several or less obvious causes: headaches, abdominal (belly) pains, shortness of breath (difficulty breathing), chest pains, red or itching skin, emotional problems, dizziness, tiredness, and fatigue.
Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc ketoconazole cream 15 gm with visa. So order ketoconazole cream 15gm on-line, the context—in the sense of the situation in which the user is immersed—plays a major role (Johnson discount 15gm ketoconazole cream with amex, 2003; Lawrence purchase ketoconazole cream 15gm line, 2000). Budzik, Hammond and Birnbaum (2001) discuss two common approaches to handle different user contexts: 1. Relevance feedback: The user begins with a query and then evaluates the answer set. By providing positive or negative feedback to the IR system, this can modify the original query by adding positive or negative search terms to it. In an iterative dialogue with the IR system, the answer set is then gradually narrowed down to the relevant result set. However, as studies (Hearst, 1999) have shown, users are generally reluctant to give exhaustive feedback to the system. Building user profiles: Similar to the relevance feedback, the IR system builds up a user profile across multiple retrieval sessions, that is, with each document the user selects for viewing, the profile is adapted. Unfortunately, such a system does not take account of “false positives”, that is, when a user follows a link that turned out to be of no value when inspecting it closer. Additionally, such systems integrate short term user interests into accumulated context profiles, and tend to inhibit highly specialized queries which the user is currently interested in. Budzik, Hammond & Birnbaum (2001) presented a system that tries to guess the user context from open documents currently edited or browsed on the work space. In an evaluation of their system both achieved consistently better results than standard search engines are able to achieve without context. Additionally, the user might discover a context he had not in mind when formulating the query and thus find links between his intended and an Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Interactive Information Retrieval Towards Effective Knowledge Management 61 unanticipated context. Augmenting Document Sets with Context Text Categorization One way to add context to a document is by assigning a meaningful label to it (Le & Thoma, 2003). This constitutes a task of text categorization and there exist numerous algorithms that can be applied. The general approach is to select a training set of documents that are already labelled. Based on the “bag of words” representation, machine learning methods learn the association of category labels to documents. For an in depth review of statistical approaches (such as naives Bayes or decision trees) see Yang (1999). Computationally more advanced methods utilize artificial neural network architectures such as the support vector machine which have achieved break even values close to 0. However, in the medical domain, 100 categories are seldom adequate to describe the context of a text. In case of the MEDLINE database, the National Library of Medicine has developed a highly standardized vocabulary, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Lowe & Barnett, 1994). They consist of more than 35,000 categories that are hierarchi- cally organized and constitute the basis for searching the database. To guarantee satisfactory search results of constant quality, reproducible labels are an important prerequisite. However, the cost of human indexing of the biomedical literature is high: according to Humphrey (1992) it takes one year to train an expert the task of document labelling. Funk, Reid, and McGoogan (1983) have reported a mean agreement in index terms ranging from 74 percent down to as low as 33 percent for different experts. Because the improvement of index consistency is such demanding, assistance systems are considered to be a substantial benefit. Recently, Aronson, Bodenreider, Chang, Humphrey, Mork, Nelson, Rindflesh, and Wilbur (2000) have presented a highly tuned and sophisticated system which yields very promising results. Additionally to the bag of words model their system utilizes a semantic network describing a rich ontology of biomedical knowledge (Kashyap, 2003). Unfortunately, the high complexity of the MeSH terms makes it hard to incorporate a MeSH-based categorization into a user interface.
For example generic ketoconazole cream 15 gm online, brachioradialis effective 15 gm ketoconazole cream, an elbow ﬂexor muscle generic 15 gm ketoconazole cream visa, increased its activity when the monkey generated either an elbow ﬂexor or a shoulder extensor muscular torque (Figure 6 discount 15gm ketoconazole cream overnight delivery. The greatest activity level was observed when the monkey generated an elbow ﬂexor and a shoulder extensor torque simultaneously. At ﬁrst, this seems paradoxical, but it simply reﬂects the action of biarticular muscles that span both joints. As a result, the activity of muscles spanning this second joint must change to compensate for the change in activity of the biarticular muscles. This has important implications with regard to the response of neurons during single- and multiple-joint loads. While the response of single-joint muscles was almost always greater for loads applied to the spanned as compared to the nonspanned joint, its effect cannot be discounted. Therefore, one cannot assume that neurons that changed their activity for loads applied to both joints are necessarily related to controlling muscles at both joints. This example underlines the inherent complexity of the peripheral motor appa- ratus. Our description earlier illustrated that joint torque does not match joint motion for multiple-joint movements due to intersegmental dynamics. The present observa- tions on EMG activity related to mechanical loads illustrates that muscle activity does not match joint torque at a given joint. Therefore, all three levels of description — motion, torque, and muscle activity — provide unique, complementary information on limb motor function. Our ongoing studies are continuing to explore limb mechan- ics including using simulations to better understand the relationship between muscle activity and motor performance. Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC 0. Nine different loading conditions were examined, generating ﬂexor, null, or extensor muscular torque at each joint. However, its magnitude also varies with shoulder muscle torque such that it increases when the monkey generates a shoulder extensor torque. Therefore, brachioradialis muscle activity varies with shoulder muscle torque even though this muscle does not span the shoulder joint. The ﬁrst goal was to describe two conceptual frameworks, sensorimotor transformations and internal models, for interpreting how the brain controls visual-guided reaching. This comparison was presented because it helps to explain how conceptual frameworks, whether implicitly or explicitly deﬁned, strongly inﬂuence the design, analysis, and interpretation of experimental data. What seems like a logical experiment from one perspective can be irrelevant from another. My recent experiments have been designed and interpreted based on the concept of internal models, where the brain mimics or reﬂects the physical properties of the limb and the environment. This concept has been very inﬂuential for human studies on motor performance and learning and appears to be ideal, at this time, for exploring the neurophysiological basis of movement in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC The second goal of this chapter was to describe the results from our recent studies using a planar experimental paradigm. Our robotic device can both sense and perturb limb motor function, and our initial studies have illustrated several of the ways in which the mechanics of the limb and of physical loads are represented in M1. It is important to realize that the present results do not disprove the notion of sensorimotor transformations. The present experiments illustrate that both kine- matic and kinetic information is reﬂected in primary motor cortical activity, as shown by other studies. The value of the concept of internal models is that it demonstrates that body motion and its interaction with the physical world must obey the laws of Newtonian physics. In effect, motor control is the study of how biological systems consider and manage these basic laws of physics.
Neurons labeled by retrograde transneuronal transport of virus after injections into the arm representation of M1 were found dorsally in the dentate at mid- rostrocaudal levels (Color Figure 1 15gm ketoconazole cream free shipping. Likewise purchase ketoconazole cream 15 gm on-line, virus injections into the face area labeled neurons dorsally in the dentate purchase ketoconazole cream 15 gm with mastercard, but at more caudal levels of the nucleus (Color Figure 1 ketoconazole cream 15gm overnight delivery. This rostral to caudal arrangement of the origin of projections to the leg, arm, and face representations in M1 corresponds well with the somatotopy previously proposed for the dentate. As a consequence, the body map generated by the projections to M1 occupied only a portion of the dorsal third of the nucleus. Unfolded maps of the dentate illustrate the neurons labeled after HSV1 injections into the (A) leg, (B) arm, and (C) face representations of M1. These maps of the dentate were created by unfolding serial coronal sections through the nucleus. Inset in part A illustrates a coronal section of the dentate where each segment in the unfolded map is identiﬁed. Virus injections into the face representation of M1 labeled neurons that are located ventral and caudal to those projecting to M1 arm. This pattern of labeled neurons suggests that the globus pallidus contains a rostral to caudal, dorsal to ventral body map with respect to the leg, arm, and face representation. This somatotopic organization is consistent with the body maps described in physiological studies. The origins of the peak density of dentate projections to selected cortical areas are labeled. The shading iden- tiﬁes cortical regions (lateral hemisphere only) that project to the cerebellum via the pons. The cortical regions indicated receive input from regions of the ventrolateral thalamus that lie within the termi- nation zone of cerebellar efferents. The thalamus has been turned upside down to indicate the match between its topography and that of the dentate. Some of these unlabeled areas contained labeled neurons after virus injections into premotor areas, whereas others contained labeled neurons only after virus injections into prefrontal areas of the cortex. We have termed the clusters of neurons in subcortical nuclei that project to a speciﬁc cortical area an “output channel. Labeled neurons (dots) are indicated for two or three coronal sections near the same stereotaxic level (A 14. For comparison, the dotted lines indicate the region of the GPi containing neurons labeled from M1. The thin solid line indicates the border between the internal and external segments of GPi. The dashed line indicates the border between the inner (i) and outer (o) portions of the GPi. This rule implies that areas of the cerebral cortex participate in multiple closed-loop circuits with the basal ganglia (Figure 1. Not every interaction between cortex and the basal ganglia follows this general plan. For example, regions of primary somatic sensory cortex are known to provide input to the basal ganglia, but they do not appear to be the target of basal Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC ganglia output. Therefore, closed loops may represent a fundamental unit of basal ganglia and cerebellar interconnections with the cerebral cortex. Classically, the generation of motor commands was thought to proceed in a serial, hierarchical fashion. The output of the premotor cortex was viewed as being funneled to M1 which served as the ﬁnal common pathway for the central control of movement. In fact, at least as many corticospinal neurons originate from the premotor areas as originate from M1. Thus, each premotor area appears to have the potential to inﬂuence the control of movement not only at the level of the primary motor cortex, but also more directly at the level of the spinal cord. Although there is as yet no deﬁnitive answer to this question, current data from anatomical, phys- iological, behavioral, and imaging studies suggest that each premotor area is con- cerned with a speciﬁc aspect of movement planning, preparation, and execution. Thus, the task of generating and controlling movement appears to be broken up into a number of subtasks that are accomplished through parallel distributed processing in multiple motor areas. Multiple motor areas may thereby decrease response time and increase response ﬂexibility.
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