By N. Ayitos. Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. 2018.
It is not clear from the text whether by ‘starting-points’ Diocles means fundamental physical states of affairs or logical postulates that should be accepted as valid without further demonstration generic cipro 500 mg without prescription, comparable to the logical postulates discussed by Aristotle in Metaphysics buy discount cipro 500mg online,19 but perhaps this is not relevant to the point he wants to make: ‘honey is laxative’ (to mention just an imaginary example) is similar to a postulate like ‘a statement p and its negation not-p cannot both be true at the same time under the same conditions’ in that it does not admit of demonstration discount cipro 750mg mastercard. Whereas a real principle like a logical postulate is undemonstrable without qualiﬁcation (pläv buy cipro 250 mg online, one is tempted to say) purchase cipro 1000mg visa, foodstuffs and their effects are so only ‘in some way’ (tr»pon tin). These are usually translated in an Aristotelian-like way by ‘naturally’, ‘by nature’, or ‘normally’, suggesting as Diocles’ intention that it is in the 18 Cf. Diocles of Carystus on the method of dietetics 83 nature of things that many things look like, or are taken as, principles. Yet if we connect the use of the word phusis here with that in section 7 above, a more comprehensible view emerges: phusis again refers to the nature of the substance in question, for example the foodstuff, and kat fÅsin means ‘according to their nature’, ‘in virtue of their nature’. In section 7 the ‘whole nature’ was said to be the cause of the effect the foodstuff normally produces; thus it is relatively easy to understand the statement that in virtue of their nature these foodstuffs and their producing such-and-such an effect are like principles. For the purpose of clarity, let me paraphrase what I think Diocles’ line of thought in this whole fragment amounts to. A foodstuff has its effect due not to one of its particular qualities but to its nature as a whole; as soon as we descend to a level that is lower (e. To be sure, we might be able to explain why honey is sweet (which is, after 21 Jaeger: ‘von Natur’; Torraca: ‘secondo natura’. Kullmann takes kat fÅsin as belonging to rca±v: ‘Viele Gegebenheiten gleichen in gewisser Weise bestimmten naturgemaßen Prinzipien, so daß sie¨ keine Darlegung uber die Ursache zulassen’ (¨ 1974, 351) and he comments on p. Smith’stranslation(‘manythingsareinsomefashionlikeﬁrstprinciplesinnature’) is not explicit on this point, like Frede’s paraphrase: ‘He also maintained that we should treat many facts of nature as primitive, rather than try to explain them in terms of some questionable theory which would serve no further purpose’ (‘Introduction’, 1985, xxii). Bertier’s paraphrase goes too far beyond what is in the text: ‘Apport insigniﬁant des theories explicatives, dans la mesure ou les realites´ ` ´ ´ contiennent en elles-memes le reﬂet de leurs principes, et oulˆ ` atheorie n’est qu’une repetition de´ ´ ´ la description du fait’ (1972, 32). Gottschalk (private correspondence) understands the whole sentence as follows: ‘(a) archai, because they are archai, cannot be explained or demonstrated, and (b) any train of reasoning, even if it does not start from the most universal and ultimate archai, must start from something accepted as true for the purpose of that argument, a quasi-arche not subjected to further analysis or demonstration’, and he takes the words kat fÅsin as expressing that ‘Our using such propositions [e. Peck in his 1928 Cambridge PhD thesis ‘Pseudo-Hippocrates Philosophus; or the development of philosophical and other theories as illustrated by the Hippocratic writings, with special reference to De victu and De prisca medicina’, pp. On the level of its nature and with regard to the effect it produces, a foodstuff ‘resembles’ (oike) a genuine undemonstrable starting- point – although it is not a starting-point in the absolute sense: the words ‘in some way’ serve the purpose of qualifying the resemblance that exists between a genuine starting-point and a foodstuff which, from a certain point of view, behaves like a starting-point. To say it with some exaggeration (which goes beyond what is in the text): there is a causal ‘gap’ between the nature of a foodstuff as being causally responsible for certain dietetic effects on the one hand, and the nature of the foodstuff as being the result of a certain sum of elements or qualities. Since no subject of ‘make mistakes’ (diamartnousin) is speciﬁed, it seems that he is still referring to the same group as in section 8 (but see below). These people, he says, miss the truth (note the similarity to the wording at the end of section 7), because their explanations are ill-founded. The third objection of ‘implausibility’ introduces the notion of persuasiveness of the doctor’s statements – an element which is also reﬂected in section 11 in the words ‘more reliable’ (pist»teron) and which is familiar from the Hippocratic writings. It is important to note the use of ‘rather’ (mllon), and to see to what exactly the habit of putting more trust in the results of long-term experience is said to be preferable: the ill-founded and undue 22 Cf. Diocles of Carystus on the method of dietetics 85 causal explanations of the groups mentioned in the above. While ‘those who believe that one should state a cause for all [things]’ (to±v pntwn o«omnoiv de±n lgein a«t©an) clearly refers to the group criticised in section 8, it is less clear who are meant by the words ‘those who state causes in this way’ (to±v mn oÔn oÌtwv a«tiologoÓsi). The most likely possibility is that it refers to those who are criticised in the sentence immediately preceding it, that is those who make mistakes because their causal explanations are ill-founded; but this is not quite compatible with section 9, where the lack of a change of subject suggests that Diocles’ additional criticism (‘in addition’, pr¼v d toÅtoiv) still applies to the same group. Another possibility is that ‘those who state causes in this way’ are the ones criticised in the ﬁrst part of the fragment (the champions of claims one and two), although it is a bit awkward to take the phrase ‘in this way’ (oÌtwv) as referring not to the ill-founded ‘stating the cause’ (lgein tn a«t©an) mentioned just before but to what was discussed in section 7. Perhaps this difﬁculty becomes less urgent when we consider how the three claims Diocles criticises are interrelated. As I said, at ﬁrst sight it seems that in his refutation of claim three in section 8, Diocles is arguing against a rather different group from the one which is his target in the earlier part of the fragment (claims one and two). Yet after reading the whole fragment, it is easy to see why he discusses these claims in the same context and in this order. The ﬁrst claim is the weakest, in that it does not commit itself to the assumption of a causal nexus between quality and power; consequently, its empirical refutation is likewise easy. Subsequently, this empirical refutation is used by Diocles as an argument against the second claim, which is one of the possible implications of the ﬁrst claim. Finally, this second claim can in its turn be seen as a possible instance of the third 26 See Smith (1979) 184. Bertier rightly concedes that Diocles does not reject causal explanation altogether (1972, 32).
A 25-gene signature of chromosomal instability has been identiﬁed from speciﬁc genes whose expression was consistently correlated with total functional aneu- ploidy in several cancer types (Carter et al cheap cipro 1000mg with visa. This signature was a signiﬁcant predictor of clinical outcomes in a variety of cancers (breast generic cipro 750 mg online, lung generic 750mg cipro, medulloblas- toma generic cipro 1000mg overnight delivery, glioma best 750mg cipro, mesothelioma and lymphoma). It could also differentiate between primary tumors and tumor metastases, and in grade 1 and grade 2 breast cancers, distinguished the more aggressive cancer within each grade. Using gene expression data from 18 previous studies of cancer, representing 6 cancer types, the authors found that this genetic proﬁle, or signature, predicted poor clinical outcome in 12 of the populations studied. The technique may form the basis of a diagnostic tool that could be used in the clinic and also help in the search for cancer drugs that reduce chromosomal instability. It has broad implications in advancing both cancer biology research and clinical can- cer management, including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer (Sequist et al. Variability between indi- viduals in the pharmacokinetics of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents has an impact on therapeutic efﬁcacy and safety. Since most anticancer agents are trans- formed by enzymes, a better knowledge of the biotransformation pathways of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, tamoxifen, docetaxel, paclitaxel, and irinotecan could help improve treatment outcome. Furthermore, a better understanding of the metabolism of anticancer agents through phenotyping and genotyping approaches will facilitate the prediction of interactions between drugs. More clinical evidence is needed on the metabolic transformation and drug interactions with these agents to improve cancer therapeutics. As such, NanoFlares are the ﬁrst genetic- based approach for detecting, isolating, and characterizing live cancer cells from blood and may provide new opportunities for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized therapy. Pathway-Based Analysis of Cancer Conversion of Gene-Level Information into Pathway-Level Information Gene-level information obtained by gene expression studies needs to be converted into pathway-level level information to generate biologically relevant representa- tion of each tumor sample. An algorithm, Pathiﬁer, infers pathway deregulation scores for each tumor sample on the basis of expression data in a context-speciﬁc manner for every particular dataset and type of cancer that is being investigated (Drier et al. By introducing a series of oncogenes into otherwise normal cells and comparing gene expression patterns in normal cells versus cells harboring oncogenes, it can be shown that each cellular signaling pathway is associ- ated with a unique gene expression signature. When evaluated in several large col- lections of human cancers, these gene expression signatures identify patterns of pathway deregulation in tumors and clinically relevant associations with disease Universal Free E-Book Store Impact of Molecular Diagnostics on the Management of Cancer 213 outcomes. Combining signature-based predictions across several pathways identiﬁes coordinated patterns of pathway deregulation that distinguish between speciﬁc can- cers and tumor subtypes. The majority of adenocarcinomas of the lung are found to be deregulated for the oncogene Ras, while only a tiny minority of squamous cell carcinomas exhibited Ras deregulation. Hence, deregulation of the Ras pathway is an important signature of adenocarcinomas but not of squamous cell carcinoma. Clustering tumors based on pathway signatures further deﬁnes prognosis in respective patient subsets, demonstrating that patterns of oncogenic pathway dereg- ulation underlie the development of the oncogenic phenotype and reﬂect the biology and outcome of speciﬁc cancers. Predictions of pathway deregulation in cancer cell lines are also shown to predict the sensitivity to therapeutic agents that target com- ponents of the pathway. Linking pathway deregulation with sensitivity to therapeu- tics that target components of the pathway provides an opportunity to make use of these oncogenic pathway signatures to guide the use of personalized cancer thera- pies. If the Ras and Myc pathways are activated in a tumor, physicians could choose drugs that target only Myc and Ras. Because tumors arise from multiple defective genes and their malfunctioning proteins, treatments must target multiple genes and their pathways. The likelihood that someone will be cured by a single drug is low, and the new approach can guide physicians as to which combination of drugs will most likely produce the best outcome. The next step in the research is to validate the new method in samples from can- cer patients who have been treated with one of the pathway-speciﬁc drugs to deter- mine if the pathway predictors are able to select those patients most likely to respond to the drug. A positive result would then form the basis for a clinical study that would evaluate the effectiveness of the pathway prediction to guide the most effec- tive use of therapeutics. This test could be used for frequent screening for cancer and replacing traditionally invasive methods with a simple blood test. It could also help determine whether a cancer treatment is effective and thus enable personalized chemotherapy. Universal Free E-Book Store 214 10 Personalized Therapy of Cancer Role of Molecular Imaging in Personalized Therapy of Cancer In oncology, if cancer cells are removed from their microenvironment, their pattern of gene expression changes because the behavior of tumor cells is inextricably linked to their environments. Therefore, noninvasive, quantitative means of detect- ing gene and protein activity are essential. In vivo optical imaging technologies have matured to the point where they are indispensable laboratory tools for small animal imaging.
The following is a suggested order: • soft tissues • gingival and periodontal tissues • teeth • occlusion best cipro 500mg. Soft tissues An abnormal appearance of the oral soft tissues may be indicative of an underlying systemic disease or nutritional deficiency buy cipro 500mg online. In addition order 250mg cipro amex, a variety of oral pathologies may be seen in children (see Chapter 15) buy 1000 mg cipro. It is therefore important to carefully examine the tongue discount 1000 mg cipro visa, palate, throat, and cheeks, noting any colour changes, ulceration, swelling, or other pathology (Fig. It is also sensible to check for abnormal frenal attachment or tongue-tie, which may have functional implications. During examination of the soft tissues, an overall impression of salivary flow rate and consistency should also be gained. Gingival and periodontal tissues A visual examination of the gingival tissues is usually all that is indicated for young children, as periodontal disease is very uncommon in this age group. The presence of colour change (redness), swelling, ulceration, spontaneous bleeding, or recession (Figs. Key Point The presence of profound gingival inflammation in the absence of gross plaque deposits, lateral periodontal abscesses, prematurely exfoliating teeth, or mobile permanent teeth may indicate a more serious underlying problem, warranting further investigation. During inspection of the gingival tissues, an assessment of oral cleanliness should also be made, and the presence of any plaque or calculus deposits noted. A number of simple oral hygiene indices have been developed to provide an objective record of oral cleanliness. One such index, the oral debris index (Green and Vermillion, 1964), requires disclosing prior to an evaluation of the amount of plaque on selected teeth (first permanent molars, and upper right and lower left central incisors) as shown in Fig. Systematic periodontal probing is not routinely practised in young children, unless there is a specific problem (see Chapter 11). However, it is prudent to carry out some selective probing for teenagers in order to detect any early tissue attachment loss, which may indicate the onset of adult periodontitis. Teeth Following assessment of the oral soft tissues, a full dental charting should be performed. A thorough knowledge of eruption dates for the primary and permanent dentition is essential as any delayed or premature eruption may alert the clinician to a potential problem. Suggested features to note are briefly listed below: • caries⎯is it active/arrested, restorable/unrestorable? Check for the presence of a chronic sinus associated with grossly carious teeth; • restorations⎯are they intact/deficient? Occlusion Clearly, a full orthodontic assessment is not indicated every time a child is examined. However, tooth alignment and occlusion should be briefly considered, as these may provide an early prompt as to the need for interceptive orthodontic treatment. It is certainly worth noting: • severe skeletal abnormalities; • overjet and overbite; • first molar relationships; • presence of crowding/spacing; • deviations/displacements. There are also two key stages of dental development, when the clinician should be particularly vigilant in checking tooth eruption and position: 1. Age 8-9 years⎯eruption of upper permanent incisors • increased overjet⎯may predispose to trauma • cross-bite⎯need for early intervention? Age 10+ years⎯eruption of upper permanent canines • are the permanent canines palpable buccally⎯if not, they may be heading in a palatal direction • are the primary canines becoming mobile⎯if not, the permanent canines may be ectopic. Comprehensive clinical guidelines for radiographic assessment of children have been proposed by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (2003). However, radiographs may be indicated in order to facilitate: • caries diagnosis; • trauma diagnosis; • orthodontic treatment planning; • identification of any abnormalities in dental development; • detection of any bony or dental pathology. Caries diagnosis Bitewing radiographs are invaluable for the detection of early interproximal carious lesions (Fig. Indeed, bitewing radiography will increase the identification of interproximal lesions by a factor of between 2 and 8, compared to visual assessment alone. Bitewing radiographs are usually recommended for all new patients, especially high caries risk individuals, to provide a baseline caries assessment.
Individuals to whom any of these circumstances Collagen is an essential part of the framework of the apply should undergo colonoscopy every 3 years cipro 500mg on-line, design of our various body tissues cipro 750mg discount. For example discount cipro 750mg without a prescription, dermatomyositis and systemic lupus ery- colon polyp A benign tumor of the large intes- thematosus are collagen diseases order cipro 750 mg visa. Benign polyps can collagen injection The practice of injecting col- easily be removed during colonoscopy and are not lagen into a part of the face or body (often the lips) life threatening buy generic cipro 250 mg on-line. The effects are long-lasting but not from the large intestine, they can become malignant permanent. During and for a few days after birth, before breast milk colonoscopy, polyps can be removed, bleeding can comes in. It is high in protective antibodies that be cauterized, and a biopsy can be performed if boost the newborn’s immune system. The most common forms of colorblindness are inherited as sex-linked (X- colporrhaphy Surgical repair of the vagina. As a result, approximately 1 in 8 colposcopy A procedure in which a lighted mag- males is colorblind, compared to fewer than 1 in nifying instrument called a colposcope (or 100 females. The most common form of color- vaginoscope) is used to examine the vagina and blindness is red–green. Testing for colorblindness is commonly per- coma A state of deep, unarousable unconscious- formed along with other types of vision screening. Coma states are sometimes graded based on the colorectal Related to the colon and/or rectum. A closed comedo (called a whitehead) has then attaching the end leading to the stomach to the an obstructed opening to the skin and may rupture skin, through the wall of the abdomen. At the exte- to cause a low-grade inflammatory skin reaction in rior opening (stoma), a bag can be attached for the area. The end of the colon that leads to the a wide opening to the skin and is capped with a rectum is closed off and becomes dormant (known blackened mass of skin debris. Usually a colostomy is per- formed because of infection, blockage, cancer, or in comedo. The common colostomy, transverse A colostomy in which the bile duct is formed by the junction of the cystic duct, exterior opening (stoma) is located on the upper from the gallbladder, and the common hepatic duct, abdomen. A complication is communication disorder A disorder of the so named because it complicates the situation. Treatment includes speech therapy and other inter- ventions, as appropriate, for the underlying condi- compound microscope A microscope that con- tion. See also aphasia; apraxia of speech; sists of two microscopes in series, the first serving articulation disorder; autism; cluttering; speech as the ocular lens (close to the eye) and the second disorder; stuttering. For example, if a person has both Crohn’s disease and stomach compress Cloth or another material applied ulcers, these are comorbid conditions. It may also be method of providing experimental treatments, gen- impregnated with medication or an herbal remedy. An example of a complementary therapy is using aromatherapy to computerized axial tomography scan See help lessen a patient’s discomfort following surgery. Complementary medicine is traditionally not taught or used in Western medical schools or hospitals. The term of practices and systems of health care that, for a conception has also been used to imply the implan- variety of cultural, social, economic, or scientific tation of the blastocyst, the formation of a viable reasons, have not been adopted by mainstream zygote, and the onset of pregnancy. A brain concussion can cause immedi- fetuses insensitive (unresponsive) to androgens ate but temporary impairment of brain functions, (male hormones). Instead, they are born looking such as thinking, vision, equilibrium, and con- externally like normal girls. After a person has had a concussion, he short blind-pouch vagina and no uterus, fallopian or she is at increased risk for recurrence. There are testes in the abdomen Moreover, after a person has several concussions, or the inguinal canal. The complete androgen less of a blow can cause injury, and the person can insensitivity syndrome is usually detected at puberty require more time to recover. The gene for the syndrome is on the X chromo- the body for either improved performance, as in some and codes for the androgen receptor (also called the dihydrotestosterone receptor). Named after the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich complete syndactyly See syndactyly, complete. Pavlov, who conditioned dogs to respond in what proved to be a predictable manner by giving them rewards. Cone cells absorb light and are essential for material that collects semen and thereby prevents distinguishing colors.
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