By B. Roy. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.
High platelet count associated nou106 with venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: results from the 10 order proscar 5 mg otc. Extracellular DNA traps Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS) order 5mg proscar visa. Tumor-associated neutrophils: new targets volume with risk of venous thromboembolism and mortality in patients for cancer therapy generic 5mg proscar free shipping. Results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study 12 purchase proscar 5 mg line. Aspirin purchase proscar 5mg, warfarin, or enoxaparin and validation of three known prognostic indices on 341 patients. Ann thromboprophylaxis in patients with multiple myeloma treated with Oncol. Khorana AA, Kuderer NM, Culakova E, Lyman GH, Francis CW. Clinical signiﬁcance of circulating micropar- and cancer-associated thrombosis. Circulating procoagulant micropar- tion by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 is critical for deep vein thrombosis ticles in cancer patients. Tissue factor-bearing 416 American Society of Hematology microparticles derived from tumor cells: impact on coagulation activa- 42. Tumor-derived tissue model of human pancreatic cancer. Increased microparticle tissue activity, venous thromboembolism and mortality in pancreatic, gastric, factor activity in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. Plasma tissue factor may factor activity and venous thrombosis in multiple myeloma. Thromb be predictive of venous thromboembolism in pancreatic cancer. Quinn1 1Division of Hematology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH Silent cerebral infarction (SCI) is a highly prevalent and morbid condition in sickle cell disease (SCD). SCI can occur beginning in the ﬁrst year of life and becomes more common with increasing age. Potentially modiﬁable risk factors for SCI include anemia and blood pressure. Headache does not appear to be associated with SCI, so neurologically normal children with headache do not necessarily warrant screening MRI for SCI. SCI does affect cognition, but biological determinants of cognition are not more important than socioeconomic factors. The recent identiﬁcation of acute silent cerebral ischemic events indicates that the total burden of ischemic injury to the brain in SCD is far greater than previously realized. Acute anemic events appear to increase the risk of acute silent cerebral ischemic events and SCI dramatically. The medical management of SCI is not yet deﬁned, but documentation of the presence of SCI may qualify affected individuals for special resources because comprehensive interventions are needed to optimize patients’ academic and vocational outcomes. The goal of this chapter is to ● To summarize the risk factors for SCI in SCD highlight several of the recent advances in our understanding of ● To rank by relative frequency the overt and covert neurologic the frequency, risk factors, correlates, causes, and management events in SCD of SCI. Like overt stroke, SCI occurs much more frequently (at least twice as frequently) in individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) or sickle- 0-thalassemia Background and deﬁnition (HbS 0) than in those with sickle-hemoglobin C disease or sickle- - The brain is at constant threat of ischemic injury in sickle cell thalassemia. The risk of overt stroke for children with SCD is Hydroxyurea to Prevent Organ Damage in Children With Sickle more than 200 times higher than that for the general population, and Cell Anemia (Baby HUG study; www. An even #NCT00006400), 13% [95% conﬁdence interval (CI), 3-34] of neuro- more common form of neurologic injury in SCD is silent cerebral logically asymptomatic children with HbSS at a mean age of 13. SCI refers to months already had SCI detected on screening MRI of the brain. The term SCI is a the prevalence of SCI increases with age throughout childhood and misnomer because these strokes, even though they do not produce approaches 40% in adolescents (Figure 2). Vichinsky et al7 found that a highly selected population of adults tion may be a better descriptor, but SCI is the accepted term. Comparisons of preva- no abnormality on neurologic examination that can be explained lence across age groups, especially between pediatric and adult groups, by the location of the infarct-like lesion. Speciﬁc deﬁnitions of are difﬁcult because the studies to date provide cross-sectional esti- the SCI lesion on MRI vary by study, but the Silent Cerebral mates of prevalence at different ages, which can be biased by several Infarct Transfusion (SIT) Trial (www. The deﬁnitions of SCI and the terminology of covert brain that was visible on at least 2 views of T2-ﬂuid-attenuated lesions also vary across studies. Little has been published about the incidence of SCI, properly SCI is therefore almost always identiﬁed incidentally as a remote deﬁned as new SCI events that occur in a speciﬁed time interval 438 American Society of Hematology Table 1.
Potential advantages and disadvantages of oral direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors compared with vitamin K antagonists Advantages Disadvantages Rapid onset/offset of action eliminates need for initial treatment with Use is contraindicated or dose reduction is required in patients with a parenteral anticoagulant in patients with acute thrombosis; also severe chronic kidney disease; such patients also require longer reduces need for “bridging” patients at high risk of thrombosis periods off therapy prior to procedures with high risk of bleeding buy proscar 5 mg online. Absence of food interactions cheap 5mg proscar with visa, limited hepatic metabolism discount proscar 5 mg with visa, and few Limited availability of assays for measuring drug levels and absence strong drug interactions generic 5 mg proscar with mastercard. Wide therapeutic window enables ﬁxed of validated monitoring strategies prevent dose titration or dosing in adults without need for laboratory monitoring generic 5mg proscar visa. Greater convenience for patients and providers with potential for Potential for overuse (eg, long-term treatment of VTE patients at greater use than vitamin K antagonists, particularly in atrial low recurrence risk). May be more cost-effective than vitamin K antagonists (no routine Higher drug acquisition costs. Lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage and lower potential risk of Short half-life leads to rapid decline in anticoagulant/antithrombotic bleeding complications, thereby reducing need for an antidote. No speciﬁc antidote in case of major bleeding; also complicates urgent surgery or interventions. For dabigatran, this appears to be an age-related warfarin places patients at increased risk for adverse events (ie, phenomenon and is most relevant to those older than 85 years. The AVERROES trial compared apixaban with aspirin stroke. Stroke can result from the rapid dissipation of the antithrom- for stroke prevention in atrial ﬁbrillation in such a study popula- botic effect of NOACs if patients do not take their medication as tion. In the phase 3 trials of rivaroxaban and bleeding was surprisingly no different from aspirin. The results of apixaban, there was a clustering of thrombotic events at the end of the AVERROES study suggest that aspirin should not have a role in the double-blind, double-dummy ROCKET-AF and ARISTOTLE the prevention of stroke in atrial ﬁbrillation. Nevertheless, the trials, which was likely due to transitioning of NOAC patients back efﬁcacy and safety of NOACs in patients with atrial ﬁbrillation for to warfarin without “bridging” with low-molecular-weight heparin 15 whom warfarin is not prescribed remains uncertain. In transitioning patients from States, atrial ﬁbrillation treatment rates did not increase in the ﬁrst a NOAC to warfarin, this problem can be overcome by giving the year that dabigatran was available. There are to comply with the requirement for regular visits and follow-up calls many reasons for this, including perceptions of both physicians and and are provided education regarding their disease state and the patients regarding the relative beneﬁts and risks of taking a vitamin importance of medication adherence (monitored with pill counts). Furthermore, only 50% of This will not be the case in practice for some patients who are patients prescribed warfarin are well managed with respect to their prescribed NOACs given the absence of a requirement for regular Table 3. Recommended doses of the dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, and apixaban for approved indications in the United States (2013) Indication Anticoagulant Recommended dose Atrial ﬁbrillation Dabigatran etexilate* Creatinine clearance 30 mL/min: 150 mg BID; creatinine clearance 15-29 mL/min: 75 mg BID Rivaroxaban† Creatinine clearance 50 mL/min: 20 mg QD; creatinine clearance 15-50 mL/min: 15 mg QD Apixaban‡ 5 mg BID; 2. Warfarin’s requirement for INR monitoring effectively also a potential for interactions between various chemotherapeutic allows adherence to be monitored. Standard major orthopedic surgery based on the RECORD trials; 2 were in therapy is also preferred among patients in intensive care units with patients undergoing total hip replacement, with 1 trial having pulmonary emboli and hemodynamic instability or a very extensive different durations of therapy,22,23 and 2 were in total knee DVT (eg, phlegmasia cerulea dolens) in whom thrombolytic therapy replacement using 2 different enoxaparin dosing regimens, 40 mg is being considered. Caution should also be exercised in prescribing 12 hours preoperatively and then daily postoperatively or 30 mg rivaroxaban at approved doses to patients at increased risk of BID starting postoperatively. A pooled analysis of the 4 trials, however, indicated reduction of rivaroxaban for creatinine clearance 50 mL/min in a very small increase in bleeding,26 an issue of particular concern to atrial ﬁbrillation, such a dose modiﬁcation is not recommended for some orthopedic surgeons who will also be reticent in initiating VTE (Table 3). Caution is advised in switching “difﬁcult” to immediate-acting anticoagulants until 12 to 24 hours postopera- manage patients without cancer (ie, recurrent VTE while on tively. In the EINSTEIN studies of patients presenting with acute deep vein Finally, there are practical issues related to the way healthcare thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism, rivaroxaban alone was systems operate that affect NOAC utilization, particularly for the compared with enoxaparin followed by a vitamin K antagonist for 3, initial treatment of symptomatic DVT entirely in the outpatient 6, or 12 months; the rivaroxaban dose was 15 mg BID for 3 weeks setting. These include the need for preauthorization of NOACs followed by 20 mg daily. The principal safety outcomes of major and departments and among practitioners responsible for follow-up. In the continued-treatment study, rivaroxa- NOACs will replace heparin and vitamin K antagonists as ban reduced the recurrence rate by 82% compared with patients on standard therapy for the majority of patients with an initial placebo, albeit with a small increased risk of major (0. In the AMPLIFY trial, a ﬁxed-dose Antidotes and laboratory monitoring regimen of apixaban alone for 6 months was also shown to be There is no speciﬁc antidote available to reverse the anticoagulant noninferior to standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic effect of dabigatran, but an approach using a monoclonal antibody is VTE, but was associated with signiﬁcantly less bleeding. Rivaroxaban and apixaban are both highly warfarin); it may reduce the costs of treating VTE by reducing the protein bound and therefore cannot be removed by hemodialysis. A post hoc analysis of pooled data from the results from high drug levels or another etiology (eg, bleeding from 2 trials did not ﬁnd any difference in outcomes among “fragile” a discrete anatomic site, coagulopathy resulting from liver disease, patients (age 75 years or creatinine clearance 50 mL/min or or disseminated intravascular coagulation) and before some surgical body weight 50 kg), those with active cancer, or those with large procedures (eg, neurosurgery, cardiac surgery). The percentage of cancer patients enrolled in thrombin time have been developed and appear to be sufﬁciently the trials was also relatively small ( 5%) because oncologists sensitive. However, a normal measurement Adherence, anticoagulation clinics, and medication provides assurance that a signiﬁcant drug concentration is no longer costs present. Dabigatran prolongs the partial thromboplastin time (PTT), Perhaps the most signiﬁcant concern with the NOACs is medication but the effects are not dose dependent; although a prolonged PTT adherence.
Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—associated tuberculous meningitis cheap proscar 5 mg line. UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Steering Committee discount 5 mg proscar amex. Late diagnosis in the HAART era: proposed common definitions and associations with mortality purchase 5 mg proscar free shipping. Influence of age on CD4 cell recovery in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: evidence from the EuroSIDA study buy cheap proscar 5mg online. Frequency and correlates of late presentation for HIV infection in France: older adults are a risk group – results from the ANRS-VESPA2 Study proscar 5mg otc, France. Delayed diagnosis of HIV infection and late initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Randomized Clinical Trial to Determine Efficacy and Safety of ART 1 Week after TB Therapy in Patients with CD4 Counts <200 Cells/µL. Early antiretroviral therapy reduces AIDS progression/death in individ- uals with acute opportunistic infections: a multicenter randomized strategy trial. Late presentation for HIV diagnosis and care in Germany. What to Start With CHRISTIAN HOFFMANN Once the decision has been made to start, the next question is, what to start with? More than two dozen drugs are now available for first-line therapy, and the number of theoretically possible combinations seems to be almost infinite. In many guide- lines, more than ten different combinations are recommended as “preferred”, while numerous more are listed as “alternatives” in first-line. Recommended first-line regimens Combinations that we currently recommend for first-line therapy (as of January 2015) are shown in Table 6. These other combinations may be accept- able in individual cases or in investigational studies, but general recommendations for their use are not given. Problematic drugs or combinations that are not advisable for use are listed at the end of this chapter. All classes have their pros and cons – there is no one gold standard. When choosing primary therapy, besides the antiviral potency and tolerability, many other factors are involved. Individual factors, such as compliance, concurrent illnesses and concomitant medications, as well as the needs of the individual patient, should be included in the decision. Primary (first-line) therapy is of great significance and needs to be well prepared. It is at this time that the chance of viral suppression followed by long-term mainte- nance of suppression is greatest. However, many patients are very nervous at this point. Even today, knowledge about HIV therapy is often limited and expectations are often unrealistic (“do I need injections? What should be clarified first Dosing issues For many patients the numbers of pills or requirements for food intake are impor- tant. The range of licensed and recommended initial regimens varies from 2 to 5 pills per day. Some patients find it unacceptable to have to take pills at certain times during the day with fatty foods as required with rilpivirine. A patient who works in 178 ART Practical tips for first-line therapy • The first regimen offers the best chance of suppression. The viral load should decrease to below detection levels within 3-6 months. Do not insist on theo- retically superior combinations. Once-daily treatment should be considered if it is important for the patient.
Although the CAPRIE trial randomized a total of 16 185 patients overall purchase proscar 5 mg free shipping, here we are focusing only on results from the subgroup of 6451 patients with a history of ischemic stroke (mean age of 64 purchase 5 mg proscar fast delivery. The subgroup analyses did not include the outcome of all-cause mortality 5 mg proscar with mastercard, but provided moderate-strength evidence that clopidogrel and aspirin have similar effects in preventing cardiovascular mortality (fatal stroke order proscar 5 mg overnight delivery, fatal myocardial infarction cheap 5mg proscar visa, other vascular death) and fatal and nonfatal stroke (Table 3 above). Clopidogrel plus aspirin When started early, within 24 hours of minor stroke symptom onset, treatment with clopidogrel 75 mg plus aspirin 81 mg (N=99) was compared to aspirin 81 mg alone (N=95) over 90 days in the fair-quality Fast Assessment of Stroke and Transient ischemic attack to prevent Early 51 Recurrence (FASTER) trial. The FASTER trial also evaluated the potential role of simvastatin in stroke prevention when taken in combination with aspirin alone or with aspirin plus clopidogrel. However, as statin co-therapy is outside of the scope of this review, we did not discuss the effectiveness results of the simvastatin treatment arms here. On the primary outcome of any stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), although there was an absolute reduction of 4. However, as the FASTER trial was stopped early due to slow recruitment and did not meet its enrollment goal of 500 patients, it may not have had adequate statistical power to detect a significant difference. Rates of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were not reported. Ticlopidine Ticlopidine was compared to aspirin in 2 randomized controlled trials of patients with a recent 45, 46 stroke or transient ischemic attack. The first was the Ticlopidine Aspirin Stroke Study (TASS), which was a North American randomized, double-blind study comparing the effect of ticlopidine 250 mg twice daily to aspirin 650 mg twice daily in 3069 patients with recent 46 transient or mild persistent focal cerebral or retinal ischemia. Newer antiplatelet agents 28 of 98 Final Update 2 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 46 In TASS, there was no significant difference between ticlopidine and aspirin 650 mg in risk of death from any cause or the risk of nonfatal stroke (primary endpoint) (20% compared with 22. The cumulative event-rate curves for the incidence of stroke (nonfatal or fatal) was statistically significant between ticlopidine and aspirin at 5 years (11. However, the 95% confidence interval barely crossed 1, which raised the possibility that the 2 medications may be similar for this endpoint. The second study was the African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS), which was a randomized, double-blind multicenter study comparing ticlopidine 250 mg twice daily and aspirin 325 mg twice daily for 2 years in 1809 African-American patients 45 with a noncardioembolic ischemic stroke with onset of 7 days to 90 days prior to enrollment. Ticlopidine and aspirin had similar effects on the primary composite outcome of recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death (14. Ticlopidine and aspirin also had similar effects on the secondary outcome of any recurrent fatal or nonfatal stroke (11. Together, these trials provide moderate-strength evidence that ticlopidine and aspirin have similar effects on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and fatal and nonfatal stroke (Table 3 above). Peripheral Vascular Disease We found no head-to-head trials that directly compared newer antiplatelet agents in patients with peripheral vascular disease. As indirect evidence, we included the peripheral arterial disease 24 subgroup from the CAPRIE trial, which evaluated the comparison of clopidogrel and aspirin. We also included the Clopidogrel and Acetylsalicylic acid in bypass Surgery for Peripheral Arterial disease (CASPAR) trial, which compared dual therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin 52 with aspirin alone. Clopidogrel compared with aspirin The CAPRIE trial compared clopidogrel 75 mg to aspirin 325 mg daily over a mean follow-up 24 duration of 1. Data from the subgroup of 11 592 patients with peripheral arterial disease were provided for each of the individual events that comprised the combined primary outcome of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death. For our analysis of cardiovascular death, we combined the number of events of fatal stroke, fatal myocardial infarction, and other vascular death and found no significant difference between clopidogrel and aspirin (1. Data from the peripheral arterial disease subgroup were not available for the outcomes of all-cause mortality or revascularization. On the primary composite outcome, compared to aspirin, there was a significant relative risk reduction with clopidogrel (23. Clopidogrel plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone We included 2 randomized controlled trials for comparison of clopidogrel plus aspirin to aspirin 52, 53 alone in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Neither trial found significant benefits Newer antiplatelet agents 29 of 98 Final Update 2 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project with clopidogrel plus aspirin for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or revascularization. The first study was a post-hoc analysis of the subset of 3096 patients with peripheral 53 arterial disease from the CHARISMA trial. In the subset with peripheral arterial disease, sex was still predominantly male (70%), but the mean age of 66 years was slightly higher than in the overall CHARISMA population. Compared to aspirin alone, therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin did not significantly reduce risk of death from any cause (6. However, due to the inherent limitations of post-hoc analyses, these results should be interpreted with caution until confirmed in an appropriately designed prospective trial. The fair-quality CASPAR trial evaluated clopidogrel 75 mg plus aspirin (range, 75 mg to 100 mg) as compared to aspirin alone (range, 75 mg to 100 mg) for 364 days (median) in 851 patients undergoing unilateral, below-knee bypass graft for atherosclerotic peripheral arterial 52 disease. Sex was predominantly male (76%) and mean age was 66 years.
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