By Y. Josh. Wittenberg University.

How Summers offended: Harvard president’s comments underscored the gender bias we’ve experienced order tadora 20 mg without prescription. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings cheap tadora 20 mg on line. A meta-analytic study of general mental ability validity for different occupations in the European Community buy tadora 20mg with mastercard. Define intelligence and list the different types of intelligences psychologists study tadora 20 mg with mastercard. These questions include how many types of intelligence there are generic 20mg tadora amex, the role of nature versus nurture in intelligence, how intelligence is represented in the brain, and the meaning of group differences in intelligence. General (g) Versus Specific (s) Intelligences In the early 1900s, the French psychologist Alfred Binet (1857–1914) and his colleague Henri Simon (1872–1961) began working in Paris to develop a measure that would differentiate students who were expected to be better learners from students who were expected to be slower learners. Binet and Simon developed what most psychologists today regard as the first intelligence test, which consisted of a wide variety of questions that included the ability to name objects, define words, draw pictures, complete sentences, compare items, and construct sentences. And it turned out that the correlations among these different types of measures were in fact all positive; students who got one item correct were more likely to also get other items correct, even though the questions themselves were very different. On the basis of these results, the psychologist Charles Spearman (1863–1945) hypothesized that there must be a single underlying construct that all of these items measure. He called the construct that the different abilities and skills measured on intelligence tests have in common thegeneral intelligence factor (g). Virtually all psychologists now believe that there is a generalized intelligence factor, g, that relates to abstract thinking and that includes the abilities to acquire knowledge, to reason abstractly, to adapt to novel situations, and to benefit from Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Soon after Binet and Simon introduced their test, the American psychologist Lewis Terman (1877–1956) developed an American version of Binet‘s test that became known as the Stanford- Binet Intelligence Test. The Stanford-Binet is a measure of general intelligence made up of a wide variety of tasks including vocabulary, memory for pictures, naming of familiar objects, repeating sentences, and following commands. Although there is general agreement among psychologists that g exists, there is also evidence for specific intelligence (s), a measure of specific skills in narrow domains. One empirical result in support of the idea of s comes from intelligence tests themselves. Although the different types of questions do correlate with each other, some items correlate more highly with each other than do other items; they form clusters or clumps of intelligences. One distinction is between fluid intelligence, which refers to the capacity to learn new ways of solving problems and performing activities, and crystallized intelligence, which refers to the accumulated knowledge of the world we have acquired throughout our lives (Salthouse, [4] 2004). These intelligences must be different because crystallized intelligence increases with age—older adults are as good as or better than young people in solving crossword puzzles— whereas fluid intelligence tends to decrease with age (Horn, Donaldson, & Engstrom, 1981; [5] Salthouse, 2004). Thurstone [6] (1938) proposed that there were seven clusters of primary mental abilities, made up of word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory. But even these dimensions tend to be at least somewhat correlated, showing again the importance of g. One advocate of the idea of multiple intelligences is the psychologist Robert Sternberg. Sternberg has proposed a triarchic (three-part) theory of intelligence that proposes that people Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. As Sternberg proposed, research has found that creativity is not highly correlated with analytical [8] intelligence (Furnham & Bachtiar, 2008), and exceptionally creative scientists, artists, mathematicians, and engineers do not score higher on intelligence than do their less creative [9] peers (Simonton, 2000). Furthermore, the brain areas that are associated with convergent thinking, thinking that is directed toward finding the correct answer to a given problem, are different from those associated with divergent thinking, the ability to generate many different [10] ideas for or solutions to a single problem (Tarasova, Volf, & Razoumnikova, 2010). On the other hand, being creative often takes some of the basic abilities measured by g, including the abilities to learn from experience, to remember information, and to think abstractly (Bink & [11] Marsh, 2000). Studies of creative people suggest at least five components that are likely to be important for creativity: Expertise. Creative people have carefully studied and know a lot about the topic that they are [12] working in. Creative people often view a problem in a visual way, allowing them to see it from a new and different point of view. Creative people tend to work on projects because they love doing them, not because they are paid for them. In fact, research has found that people who are paid to be [13] creative are often less creative than those who are not (Hennessey & Amabile, 2010). Simonton [14] (1992) found that the most creative people were supported, aided, and challenged by other people working on similar projects. The last aspect of the triarchic model, practical intelligence, refers primarily to intelligence that cannot be gained from books or formal learning. Practical intelligence represents a type of “street smarts‖ or “common sense‖ that is learned from life experiences.

As a treatment for toothache salt tadora 20mg online, pepper and a little garlic were mixed cheap tadora 20mg on-line, and the mixture was left on the pulse overnight buy generic tadora 20mg. A couple of years ago the actress Gwyneth Paltrow made headlines when wearing a backless dress showing the marks from having cupping during an acupuncture treatment buy generic tadora 20mg on-line. Today cupping is most commonly used to treat coughs purchase tadora 20 mg overnight delivery, asthma, and muscle aches and pain, especially back pain, but it has been used in cultures across the world for centuries and was especially popular in eastern European Jewish traditional medicine, where it was known as bahnkes. Cupping was especially popular as a treatment for weak and obese patients and pregnant women. Despite the enduring popularity of the procedure, the old Yiddish proverb, Es vet helfen vi a toiten bahnkes, ‘it will help like applying cups to a dead person’, indicates a more sceptical view of its efficacy. Cupping techniques vary but bahnkes involves the use of small cups containing a small amount of alcohol which is heated and a vacuum is produced by the absence of oxygen (Figure 11. This suction is thought to draw out noxious substances from the body, thus restoring the balances of bodily humors. The numbers 3, 7 and 9 were particularly efficacious and invocations used were similar for Jews and Christians with the wording adapted to the sensitivities of the patient. Sefer Hasidim, a book of mediaeval pietistic literature, records that a person who has been harmed by a demon needs to have the charm repeated nine Figure 11. For a severe headache a thread was wound three times around the patient’s head and hung in a tree. The patient’s belt was stretched over the length and width of his body and then hung on a nail with the appropriate incantation and measured: any change in length was interpreted as being prognostic of the course of the illness. Circling round the patient, initially seen as preventing the action of demons, could also be used as a remedy against various diseases. Having the name written on the forehead was said to be very effective in stopping bleeding. A magic name written on an apple and consumed on three sepa- rate occasions was used to heal fevers. This might be repeated or combined with a call on the angel Armisael, who governs the womb, to help the woman and baby to life and peace. Many German magical cures, which would otherwise have been lost, have been preserved in Hebrew manuscripts. A person’s name is considered to play a role in deciding his fate; it is given to him when he enters the Jewish world and has been described as serving as a social and cosmological identity card. In the Middle Ages the name might be chosen by lot or by randomly finding a name in the Bible whereas in more modern times the change of name was usually to one associated with life, health or old age, such as Chaim or Alter. The ritual for such a name change can be found in many contemporary Jewish prayer books. The angelic name Rafael, shares the same Hebrew root as refuah, medicine, and is thus an auspicious name for health or for inscription on an amulet. Many of these amulets carry the numerical equivalents of holy words because of what is seen as the intrinsic holiness of the Hebrew letters. There are passages in the Torah the recitation or inscription of which can be efficacious in treating illness. The entire Book of Psalms was considered as a potent protec- tion against danger whereas Psalm 121 is used especially for protecting 308 | Traditional medicine women after childbirth and Psalm 91, using either the first or last letters of each verse, is for general protection. These Jewish doctors filled an important gap in the numbers of physi- cians in the area and records indicate that they formed a larger proportion of the population than the number of Jewish inhabitants might have indicated. One such, a potion made from almond milk, honey and roses, was popular among Jerusalem’s Jews. Rabbi Rafael Mordekhai Malkhi, who arrived in Jerusalem from Italy in 1676, mentions many items in his writings. However, he expressed his concern about the poor quality of medication on offer and noted that much of what was available to the Jewish population was based on superstition. Malkhi’s grandson, Rabbi David de Silva, describes some compounds in a chapter entitled Pri Megaddim, choice fruit, in his work Pri Hadas. De Silva includes about 200 items in his pharmacopoeia, which Amar notes shows similarities with works from Hippocrates and the early modern period, as well as contemporary popular medicines. At the same time there was little popular understanding of the pathology or physiology of disease and many could easily be fooled by exaggerated claims of effectiveness. Consequently, a market grew from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Britain and North America for commercial medications supplied by apothecaries, as well as by untrained and unlicensed providers of patent medicine. Patent medicines were marketed effectively and their popularity can be gauged by the existence of over 1000 such products by 1830.

Examples: gastrocnemius (resembles the stomach) and trapez- ius (resembles a tablet) cheap 20mg tadora with amex. Check out Table 6-1 for a rundown of prominent muscles in the body and key points to remember about each one tadora 20mg without a prescription. In the naming of the muscles buy 20mg tadora amex, the latissimus dorsi buy 20mg tadora otc, the rectus abdominis buy tadora 20mg free shipping, and the serratus anterior are names based upon a. In humans, the origin of the biceps brachii would best include which of the following? Semitendinosus Chapter 6: Getting in Gear: The Muscles 109 Answers to Questions on Muscles The following are answers to the practice questions presented in this chapter. If every muscle in the body were to relax, the heart would stop beating and food would stop moving through the digestive system. To remember this stage of development, combine the Greek myo with genesis, or new beginning. All the other identi- fied regions grow larger or smaller through the functions of myosin and actin. Muscle contractions are all-or-nothing; there’s no such thing as a partial contraction. Perimysium x Connective tissue through which arteries and veins enter muscle bundles: c. Trabecula y Flat, sheet-like tendon that serves as insertion for a large flat muscle: b. B Which of the following statements finishes this sentence and makes it not true: A contracting muscle unable to move a load d. This statement is false because the contraction of the muscle causes tension in all cases. F Which of the following would produce a wide range of movement with speed while sacrificing power? The longer the weight arm, the greater the range of action and speed but the less power there is. J In the naming of the muscles, the latissimus dorsi, the rectus abdominis, and the serratus ante- rior are names based upon a. Latissimus stems from the Latin for “wide,” rectus from the Latin word for “straight,” and serratus from the Latin word for “notched” or “scalloped. You can figure out this answer by recalling that cleido stems from the Latin word for “collarbone. Scapula M Which of the following are insertions for the triceps and biceps brachii? The term abdominis is the giveaway here because it should make you think of the abdomen. Although people usually think of the biceps brachii in the arm, you can’t forget about the biceps femoris at the back of the thigh. In an average person, its 17 to D20 square feet of surface area represents 15 percent of the body’s weight. Self-repairing and surprisingly durable, the skin is the first line of defense against the harmful effects of the outside world. It helps retain moisture; regulates body temperature; hosts the sense receptors for touch, pain, and heat; excretes excess salts and small amounts of waste; and even stores blood to be moved quickly to other parts of the body when needed. Skin is jam-packed with components; it has been estimated that every square inch of skin contains 15 feet of blood vessels, 4 yards of nerves, 650 sweat glands, 100 oil glands, 1,500 sensory receptors, and over 3 million cells with an average lifespan of 26 days that are con- stantly being replaced. Dermatology Down Deep Skin — together with hair, nails, and glands — composes the integumentary system (shown in Figure 7-1). Composed of areolar (porous) and adipose (fat) tissue, it anchors the skin through fibers that extend from the dermis. Underneath, the hypodermis attaches loosely to tissues and organs so that muscles can move freely. Around elbow and knee joints, the hypodermis contains fluid-filled sacs called bursae. The fat in the hypodermis buffers deeper tissues and acts as insulation, preventing heat loss from within the body’s core. The hypodermis also is home to pressure-sensitive nerve endings called lamellated or Pacinian corpuscles that respond to a deeper poke in the skin. Epidermis: Don’t judge this book by its cover Epidermis, which contains no blood vessels, is made up of layers of closely packed epithelial cells.

Stress and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the developmental course of schizophrenia buy tadora 20 mg overnight delivery. Stress and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the developmental course of schizophrenia buy 20 mg tadora with mastercard. Categorize the different types of personality disorders and differentiate antisocial personality disorder from borderline personality disorder buy discount tadora 20mg online. Outline the biological and environmental factors that may contribute to a person developing a personality disorder purchase 20mg tadora mastercard. Apersonality disorder is a disorder characterized by inflexible patterns of thinking cheap 20 mg tadora otc, feeling, or relating to others that cause problems in personal, social, and work situations. Personality disorders tend to emerge during late childhood or adolescence and usually continue throughout [1] adulthood (Widiger, 2006). The disorders can be problematic for the people who have them, but they are less likely to bring people to a therapist for treatment than are Axis I disorders. They are categorized into three types: those characterized by odd or eccentric behavior, those characterized by dramatic or erratic behavior, and those characterized by anxious or inhibited behavior. Probably you know someone who seems a bit suspicious and paranoid, who feels that other people are always “ganging up on him,‖ and who really doesn‘t trust other people very much. Perhaps you know someone who fits the bill of being overly dramatic—the “drama queen‖ who is always raising a stir and whose emotions seem to turn everything into a big deal. Or you might have a friend who is overly dependent on others and can‘t seem to get a life of her own. The personality traits that make up the personality disorders are common—we see them in the people whom we interact with every day—yet they may become problematic when they are [2] rigid, overused, or interfere with everyday behavior (Lynam & Widiger, 2001). What is perhaps common to all the disorders is the person‘s inability to accurately understand and be sensitive to the motives and needs of the people around them. Odd/eccentric Paranoid loyalties of friends and read hostile intentions into others‘ actions. Self-mutilation or suicidal threats or gestures to get attention or manipulate others. Self-image fluctuation and a tendency to see Borderline others as “all good‖ or “all bad. Grandiose language, provocative dress, exaggerated illnesses, all to gain attention. Emotional, lively, Histrionic overly dramatic, enthusiastic, and excessively flirtatious. Dramatic/erratic Narcissistic Good first impressions but poor longer-term relationships. May be devastated by end of close relationship or suicidal if breakup is Dependent threatened. For one, it is frequently difficult for the clinician to accurately diagnose which of the many personality disorders a person has, although the friends and colleagues of the person can generally do a good job of it (Oltmanns & [3] Turkheimer, 2006). And the personality disorders are highly comorbid; if a person has one, it‘s likely that he or she has others as well. Also, the number of people with personality disorders is [4] estimated to be as high as 15% of the population (Grant et al. Although they are considered as separate disorders, the personality disorders are essentially [5] milder versions of more severe Axis I disorders (Huang et al. Although it is not possible to consider the characteristics of each of the personality disorders in this book, let‘s focus on two that have important implications for behavior. Borderline and antisocial personality disorders are also good examples to consider because they are so clearly differentiated in terms of their focus. They often show a clinging dependency on the other person and engage in manipulation to try to maintain the relationship. They become angry if the other person limits the relationship, but also deny that they care about the person. As a defense against fear of abandonment, borderline people are compulsively social.

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